Logo

Executive Summary

More than 70 years after the defeat of Nazi Germany, ethno-nationalist and white supremacist movements in Europe continue to thrive. They include far-right political parties, neo-Nazi movements, and apolitical protest groups. Some groups openly espouse violent white supremacy, while others have propagated their radical stances under the guise of populism. Such populist groups claim that they are striving to protect average hardworking Europeans by preserving their livelihoods and heritages from economic and cultural threats posed by immigrants and ethnic minorities. Though not all of these groups directly link their ideologies to Nazism, their propaganda portrays immigrants and ethnic minorities in a similar manner to how Nazi propaganda portrayed Jews, blaming them for national economic troubles and depicting them as a serious threat to the broader national identity.

In a June 2018 speech, German Chancellor Angela Merkel recognized that the majority of refugees are victims, and that "escape and expulsion are part of our German and European history."* Nonetheless, several far-right political parties in Europe have infused anti-immigrant and particularly anti-Muslim xenophobia into their party platforms through the concept of ethno-nationalism––the idea that a nation should be composed of a single ethnicity. These parties postulate that hardworking European natives are suffering economic and cultural losses due to immigrants and ethnic minorities who want to replace national, religious, and cultural identities with foreign values. Ethno-nationalists also view multiculturalism as a code word for the destruction of the native national identity. For example, Hungary's neo-fascist Jobbik political party rejects "the dead-end Western European multiculturalism" and has pledged to "defend our cultural identity developed over our history."* Groups like Germany's Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) political party lament the influx of Muslim immigrants, which they claim weakens the German culture and quality of life. AfD has gone so far as to claim that Islam is a danger to Germany.*

These far-right political parties have therefore been able to unite ethno-nationalism with populism by propagating the notion that ethno-nationalism serves the average hardworking individual and the broader national identity. Their propaganda campaigns have allowed them to generate substantial popular support and make gains in domestic elections. The AfD came in third in Germany's September 2017 parliamentary elections.* In March 2018's Italian parliamentary elections, the far-right, anti-immigrant Lega Nord ("Northern League") party succeeded in becoming the third largest party in Italy's parliament. In June 2018, League leader Matteo Salvini assumed the role of Italy's interior minister. He has since refused a migrant aid ship permission to dock in Italy and called for a national census to address "the Roma question."* Both parties also view the European Union as a harmful foreign influence that has undermined the sovereignty of their respective nations.* Salvini has even derided the euro as a "German currency" and a "crime against humanity."*

Some ethno-nationalist political movements have openly embraced the language and symbolism of the Nazi movement. In Hungary, Gabor Vona, the former chair of the far-right Jobbik, has blamed international Jewry for attempting to buy Hungary and interfere in its elections. Jobbik has also used the Nazi "Arrow Cross" to symbolize pride in Hungary's Nazi past.* In 2014, a Hungarian court ruled that Jobbik may be referred to as "neo-Nazi" in Hungary.* Despite similarities in propaganda, however, not all of Europe's far-right political movements have openly embraced links to the Nazi or neo-Nazi movements. Members of the French anti-immigrant Les Identitaires movement reject violence and consider themselves to be patriots defending European identity from cultural corruption imposed by Islamic mores.* Les Identitaires' youth wing, Generation Identity (GI), has a presence across Europe and uses social media and popular demonstrations to propagate similar anti-Islamic notions and gain traction with young people.*

Les Identitaires and GI adhere to the identitarian ideology and its Great Replacement theory, which GI describes as “the process by which the indigenous European population is replaced by non-European migrants.”* Employing similar rhetoric, Brenton Tarrant, the white supremacist who allegedly killed 50 people at two New Zealand mosques on March 15, 2019, entitled his manifesto “The Great Replacement” and wrote about the “crisis of mass immigration and … assault on the European people that, if not combated, will ultimately result in the complete racial and cultural replacement of the European people.”* The New Zealand attack was a manifestation of the identitarian ideology and its view of a broader white European ethnic identity prevalent in the Western world that transcends national borders. While groups like GI claim to reject violence, they promote an ideology that has led directly toward it.

Some of Europe's historically non-political, violent far-right groups have not only embraced similar populist language to the ethno-nationalist political movements, but also continue to espouse openly racist concepts and employ violence to achieve their visions of an ethnically homogenous state. Combat 18, a violent neo-Nazi skinhead group founded in the United Kingdom in 1992, currently has a presence in at least 18 countries.* Similar to ISIS in its aim to create a Muslim-only caliphate, the group encourages supporters to carry out lone-wolf terrorist attacks as part of its greater aim to create white-only countries through violence.* National Action is another group of young far-right extremists that, in 2016, became the first far-right group to be labeled as a terrorist organization in the United Kingdom after it praised the murder of a parliamentarian.* The group, whose members believe that "Britain should be for British people,"* reportedly operates training camps where recruits learn hand-to-hand combat in preparation for "white jihad."* Not only do these violent white supremacist groups employ similar strategies to some of the most prominent Islamic terror groups, but they are also motivated to pursue the radical end goal of an ethnically or culturally homogenous state due to similar concerns that their identity and way of life are under threat.

The Counter Extremism Project (CEP)'s European Ethno-Nationalist and White Supremacy Groups report outlines the history, propaganda, violent activities, and notable rhetoric of some of the continent's most active ethno-nationalist and white supremacist groups.

Download Full Report

Key Points:

European far-right ethno-nationalist groups have cast immigrants as a scapegoat for economic hardship faced by young Europeans. Rather than promote overt white supremacy, these groups denigrate minorities—particularly Muslim immigrants—as detrimental to European culture.

Far-right political parties like Germany's Alternative für Deutschland and Italy's Lega Nord have been able to generate substantial popular support by promising to defend their respective countries against the cultural attacks of immigrants and foreign influences, and have consequently made gains in domestic parliamentary elections.

Groups like Les Identitaires and its youth wing, Generation Identity, have renounced violence in favor of utilizing social media and public demonstrations to portray themselves as legitimate, mainstream movements protecting European culture. These groups have directly targeted Europe's youth through social media and public demonstrations.

Groups including Combat 18 and the Nordic Resistance Movement, which openly embrace neo-Nazi ideology and violent tactics, are still able to recruit for violent activities, despite the rise of non-violent, populist groups.

Alternative für Deutschland

Alternative für Deutschland

The far-right Alternative für Deutschland (Alternative for Germany or AfD) political party has increased in popularity across Germany on anti-immigrant and anti-Islam platforms. The party blames immigrants in general and Muslim immigrants in particular for weakening the German culture and way of life.* The party's manifesto declares forthrightly that "Islam does not belong to Germany."* In Germany's September 2017 parliamentary elections, AfD became the third largest political party in the German parliament.*

A group of economists established AfD in 2013 out of concern that the European Union's economic policies were weakening Germany's economy. In 2014, AfD won 10 percent of the vote in local elections in the German state of Saxony. Co-founder Bernd Lucke quit in July 2015, declaring that the party had become xenophobic. Later that month, Frauke Petry took over as the party's leader and shifted its focus from economics to immigration.* In 2016, Petry stated her belief that German police should, "if necessary," shoot at illegal immigrants trying to enter Germany, and AfD deputy leader Alexander Gauland stated that most Germans "wouldn't want to live next door" to German soccer player Jérôme Boateng because his father is Ghanaian.* That June, German Deputy Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel labeled the AfD as xenophobic and compared its positions to those of the Nazi party. At the time, the AfD was represented in eight out of 16 of Germany's state assemblies.*

AfD has specifically targeted Islam. The party's 2016 Manifesto for Germany denigrated Islam as foreign to Germany society and called for its restriction. It sought to distinguish between "law-abiding and well-integrated" Muslims in Germany who are "accepted and valued members" of German society and Islam as a whole, which "does not belong to Germany."* The manifesto further condemned the "ever-increasing number of Muslims in the country…as a danger to our state, our society, and our values."*

Although Petry shifted AfD's focus from economics to immigration, the party has maintained its belief that the European Union has been economically detrimental to Germany. According to AfD's 2016 Manifesto for Germany, the core treaties of the European Union have undermined Germany's sovereignty. AfD accuses a "small and powerful elite within the political parties" of controlling Germany's government and ceding power to the European Union.* Much like its anti-immigration stance, AfD's aversion to the European Union suggests an overarching fear of the deterioration of the German identity.

While AfD's rhetoric has largely focused on Islam, the group has also targeted Germany's Jewish community. AfD has rejected ritual circumcision—practiced by both religious communities—as a "serious violation of fundamental rights."* In a January 2017 address to an AfD youth group, senior AfD leader Björn Höcke condemned Germany's ongoing commemorations of the Holocaust and called for "a 180-degree reversal on the politics of remembrance."*

Petry resigned from the party shortly after the September 2017 elections because of concerns over "how the AfD is likely to develop."* Following AfD's third-place victory in Germany's September 2017 elections, AfD remained outside the governing coalition, making it Germany's main opposition party.* In June 2018, a poll in the Bild am Sonntag newspaper recorded a 16 percent approval for AfD, its highest rating ever in the newspaper's poll. The poll came as the governing coalition faced a crisis over immigration policies.*

Leadership

AfD was founded by Bernd Lucke, Alexander Gauland, and Konrad Adam.* AfD is co-chaired by Jörg Meuthen and Alexander Gauland.*


Bernd Lucke

Alexander Gauland

Konrad Adam

Jörg Meuthen

Base of Operations

Germany

Website

https://www.afd.de/

Social Media

Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube

Membership Size and Relevance

As of 2016, AfD reportedly had 23,500 members across Germany.* In Germany's September 2017 parliamentary elections, AfD won 92 out of 631 seats to become Germany's third-largest political party in parliament.* In February 2018, German Prime Minister Angela Merkel signed a coalition agreement between her conservative Christian Democrats party and the center-left Social Democrats, making AfD Germany's main opposition party.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

AfD's propaganda focuses on the restoration of German culture and sovereignty, both of which the party believes have been weakened by an influx of immigrants and the open-border and economic policies of the European Union. Its plans to restore German sovereignty and restrict Islam in Germany are outlined in its 2016 Manifesto for Germany.*

The AfD maintains a social media presence on Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram. As of July 3, 2018, AfD had 449,418 likes on Facebook and 132,000 followers on Twitter. The AfD’s Twitter page posts in German while its Facebook page posts in German and English.* AfD’s YouTube channel had 33,812 subscribers as of March 19, 2019, compared with 25,634 as of July 3, 2018. The channel hosted more than 360 videos that had drawn more than 5.3 million views, an increase of more than 4 million since July 2018.* AfD’s Instagram account had 12,800 followers as of the same date. *

Violent Activities

AfD is not linked to specific acts of violence.

Rhetoric

Combat 18

Combat 18

Combat 18 (a.k.a. C18, 318, nicknamed "Terror Machine") is a neo-Nazi group that seeks to create white-only countries through violence. The group was established in the United Kingdom and is now present in at least 18 countries worldwide. The "18" in the name refers to the first and eighth letters of the English alphabet, A and H, for Adolf Hitler. Combat 18 was founded in 1992 by Paul "Charlie" Sargent. It largely drew its membership from white supremacists associated with the Chelsea Headhunters soccer hooligan gang and the British neo-Nazi record label and political organization Blood and Honour (B&H).*

According to the group's propaganda magazine Combat 18, Combat 18's aims are to create all-white countries by shipping "all non-whites back to Africa, Asia, Arabia, whether alive or in body bags," execute "all Queers" and "white race mixers," "weed out all Jews in the government, the media, the arts, the professions," execute "all Jews who have actively helped to damage the white race," and "put into camps the rest until we find a final solution to the eternal Jew."* Over time, Combat 18 has ceased functioning as a centralized organization. Instead, the group's ideology and brand have become a transnational rallying call for neo-Nazi action.* Combat 18 encourages the creation of independent cells and lone-wolf terrorism under the slogan "whatever it takes!"* While the group may have once had an official roster, supporters of Combat 18 now claim that membership is achieved through participation in violent neo-Nazi activities.*

Combat 18 refuses to participate in electoral politics, instead directly appealing to potential recruits through fliers, stickers, magazines, music distribution, and the use of violence. The organization is banned in Germany, and Combat 18 members in the United Kingdom are barred from working in law enforcement or corrections facilities.* In the 1990s, Combat 18 members allegedly made ties with the loyalist paramilitary group Ulster Defence Association in Northern Ireland.* Combat 18 has also been linked to Aryan Strike Force 318 (ASF318) in the eastern United States, the Racial Volunteer Force (RVF) in Britain, and the National Socialist Underground (NSU) in Germany.*

Leadership

Founded and originally led by Paul "Charlie" Sargent.* Today, Combat 18 describes itself as leaderless resistance organized in cells.*

Base of Operations

Founded in London; chapters exist in the United Kingdom, United States, France, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Greece, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Canada, Australia, South Africa, and Argentina*

Website

Blood and Honour/Combat 18 USA, Combat 18 Florida, Combat 18 France, Blood and Honour/Combat 18 Canada, Blood and Honour/Combat 18 Poland, Combat 18 Hungary, Redwatch, Redwatch (Poland), ISD Records.*

Social Media

Facebook (Combat 18 Australia), VK, VK (Ukraine)

Membership Size and Relevance

Combat 18 is present in at least 18 countries in Europe, North America, South America, and Australia. According to the group itself, there are no membership rolls, making membership fluid and its numerical strength difficult to estimate.* A Facebook page allegedly belonging to an Australian chapter of the group had 169 likes as of April 2, 2018, and 194 likes as of July 3, 2018.* By March 19, 2019, the page had 252 likes.* In 2016, the British organization Hope Not Hate approximated that Combat 18 had between 20 and 30 members in the United Kingdom.*

Combat 18 has been promoted by bands in the neo-Nazi skinhead rock music scene. Numerous white power skinhead bands in Germany, Russia, Poland, the United Kingdom, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United States have recorded songs praising Combat 18. Several online neo-Nazi record stores sell merchandise with the group's logo and slogan.*

Combat 18 has remained particularly active in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Greece. In the United Kingdom, Combat 18 supporters have joined other far-right groups such as the xenophobic North West Infidels, which opposes Muslim immigration.* In 2016, former Combat 18 leader Nigel Bromage claimed that the group was attempting to persuade teachers to join in order to influence schoolchildren.* Despite being banned in Germany, Combat 18 has been rebuilding its presence there since 2013, establishing cells in seven out of the country's 16 states.* In 2006, a Combat 18 cell in Dortmund smuggled firearms from Belgium and planned assaults on immigrants and politicians.* In March 2018, Greek authorities arrested 11 people suspected of belonging to a Combat 18 cell that was accused of more than 30 arson attacks, primarily on migrants, anarchists, and Jewish sites.* Greek police raids against the group have recovered firearms, explosives, Molotov cocktails, narcotics, and edged and blunt weapons.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

Historically, Combat 18 has recruited from a pool of neo-Nazi skinheads and soccer hooligans, particularly from the B&H network and far-right skinhead music scene.*

Combat 18 has a minimal Internet presence but some websites and social media pages for the group do exist. A Greek cell has used Facebook to coordinate attacks. A Czech cell that operated from 2011 to 2012 maintained a website to spread its message and recruit.*

Combat 18's National Socialist Political Soldiers Handbook is a guidebook for prospective recruits. In addition to the group's creed, the manual offers advice on physical fitness, recruiting, evading detection and capture, and intentionally vague "direct action," which the handbook describes as "the disruption and elimination of all that is detrimental to our race and opposed to the cause of National Socialism."* The text is available online and through Internet retailers.*

Violent Activities

Rhetoric

English Defence League

English Defence League

The English Defence League (EDL) believes that British society is under attack by Muslim extremists. Since 2009, the group has held what British media has routinely referred to as "aggressive rallies" across England.* The EDL claims to stand for English rights, democracy, and rule of law. Concurrently, the group believes it is a leader in "the struggle against global Islamification."*

The EDL equates illegal immigration with an invasion. It blames Muslim immigrants for importing a culture of terrorism into England and raping English women, a phenomenon that it has dubbed "rape jihad."* The EDL believes that rape jihad is ingrained in Islamic religious texts and foundation.* The EDL blames the broader Muslim community for a list of offenses, including denigration and oppression of women, organized sexual abuse of children, support of terrorism, female genital mutilation, honor killings, homophobia, racism, anti-Semitism, and intolerance of non-Muslims.*

The EDL was co-founded in Luton, England, in 2009 by Kevin Carroll and Stephen Christopher Yaxley-Lennon, a.k.a. Tommy Robinson.* According to Robinson, the two men formed EDL in response to the threat of "militant Islam."* In 2011, EDL members joined vigilante patrols in southeast London and clashed with police.* Matthew Collins of the British NGO Hope Not Hate told British media in 2013 that the EDL had become increasingly fascist in its protests and "went from being concerned about extremism, to them radicalising themselves."* A 2013 poll found that 61 percent of Britons believed that groups like the EDL made terrorism more likely.*

In October 2013, Robinson and Carroll quit the group, citing concerns of growing far-right extremism within the EDL.* Robinson said he was persuaded to leave the group by the British anti-extremism think tank Quilliam, but later said that Quilliam paid him £2,000 a month to make the claim.* Twitter permanently banned Robinson in March 2018, reportedly because of violations of the company's "hateful conduct" policy.* In May 2018, Robinson was sentenced to 13 months in prison for contempt of court after filming outside of a jury trial.* The following month, thousands of far-right supporters of Robinson marched through London.*

British counter-extremism group Hope Not Hate claims that the EDL has suffered a "lethargic and alcohol-fuelled almost comic collapse."* Nonetheless, the group maintains its active social media presence and continues to stage demonstrations across the country.

Membership Size and Relevance

The EDL does not maintain membership lists, but media reports suggested the group had approximately 30,000 members as of 2013.* British NGO Hope Not Hate claimed in early 2018 that the EDL has collapsed, though the EDL still maintains an active online presence and calendar of events.*

The EDL maintains 17 regional chapters throughout England, according to the group's website. The EDL encourages visitors to its website to visit the Facebook page of their closest chapter and to attend EDL demonstrations.* The EDL’s main Facebook page had 2,728 likes as of March 19, 2019.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

The EDL maintains Facebook pages for each of its 17 regional chapters. After Twitter suspended the EDL's account in 2017, the group created an account on Gab, a social network populated by far-right groups.* The EDL's website also has a forum available to registered members.* The EDL also asks for donations through PayPal.*

Violent Activities

The EDL claims to be committed to non-violence.* Nonetheless, its members have been involved in numerous violent clashes with police and other protesters. The Guardian has produced footage of violent protesters at EDL demonstrations and the group's plans to elicit violent reactions.* Further, others have reportedly been inspired to violence by EDL propaganda.

Rhetoric

  • EDL Gab account, June 23, 2018: "Just as Italy's new government grows a pair and comes down tough on the invasions, Spain goes all soft and weepy and takes in those invaders turned back by Italy https://dailym.ai/2MM5vA5"*
  • Alan Spence, tweet, May 8, 2018: "Hey Israel why the fuck are you bombing Syrian army positions? These people are stopping ISIS advancing......Fuck you jew cunts!!"*
  • EDL Tumblr post, April 22, 2018: "We stand because the Government refuses to stand up for us and the thousands of young women and girls abused by Muslim gangs up and down this country. We call it rape jihad because it is not only an attack on the individual girls it is an attack on the foundation of this country, on our future mothers. It is jihad because it is inspired by Mohammed, the founder of Islam, and the theology of the Quran."*
  • EDL Tumblr post, April 22, 2018: "The English Defence League has been pushing back now – for going on 8 years. Little, but some progress has been made but we will not be satisfied until the misogyny, cruelty and terror of Islam are banished from this green and pleasant land."*
  • EDL Tumblr post, March 31, 2018: "Churchill's advice was ignored. 'An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.' The 'crocodile' in the national room is of course Islam."*
  • EDL spokesman Guramit Singh on upcoming protests in Bradford, England, 2013: "The problem with Bradford is the security threat, it is a highly populated Muslim area. They are very militant as well. Bradford is a place that has got to be hit."*

Generation Identity

Generation Identity

Generation Identity (GI) is a pan-European youth movement that originated in France in 2012 as the youth wing of France's Les Identitaires movement.* GI has since spread to five other regions in Europe. Its newest branch claims to span the United Kingdom and Ireland, which the group claims are "inflicted by extreme multiculturalism."* GI believes that white Europeans are falling victim to "the Great Replacement"—"the process by which the indigenous European population is replaced by non-European migrants."* GI seeks to stop what it views as the Islamization of Europe, stop globalization, and reverse the "Great Replacement."*

To realize these goals, the network has issued five demands: preserve European ethno-cultural identity, defend freedom of speech and opinion against far-left attacks, repatriate illegal immigrants to their countries of origin, promote regional development in African countries to stem emigration, and secure national borders.* GI claims it does not "provide a platform for any kind of national-socialist or fascist groups or views."* Nonetheless, GI's German chapter, Identitäre Bewegung, has reportedly marched alongside neo-Nazi skinheads, and the German neo-Nazi political party NPD has held up GI's tactics as a model.* Austrian GI leader Martin Sellner has also professed the group's dedication to non-violence,* but GI has created militaristic training camps across Europe that feature combat training as well as anti-Islamic and anti-immigrant speakers.*

GI has staged numerous public protests, beginning with occupying the site of a future mosque in Poitiers, France, in October 2012.* Several of the perpetrators were sentenced to a year in prison in December 2017 on charges of incitement to discrimination and property destruction related to this incident.* In March 2016, police arrested 14 GI members after they lit tires on fire during a protest near refugee camps in Calais, France. The GI protesters claimed that they were defending Europe from a "migrant invasion."* In October 2017, GI's British chapter unrolled a giant banner over London's Westminster Bridge reading "Defend London: Stop Islamisation."*

GI accuses humanitarian NGOs of smuggling millions of people to Europe from Africa. It created a spinoff group, Defend Europe, in order to stop what it believes to be illegal human trafficking by refugee aid organizations.* In August 2017, Defend Europe members chartered a ship in order to block the transport of immigrants from Libya. They draped it with a giant banner declaring "No Way—You Will Not Make Europe Home."* GI claimed that it received $100,000 in donations to pay for the charter.* However, the ship experienced mechanical issues and the GI crew had to be rescued by a ship belonging to the German refugee aid organization Sea Eye.* Human rights advocates accuse GI activists of delaying necessary humanitarian rescues with such tactics.*

In March 2018, British authorities banned Sellner from entering the country ahead of a speaking engagement. The British Home Office declared that his entry would not be "conducive to the public good."* The following month, British authorities again denied Sellner entry into the country to attend a GI "European Reunion" conference.*

Leadership

Martin Sellner and Martin Lichtsmesz lead GI's Austrian chapter. Sellner is also the main leader of Defend Europe.* Lorenzo Fiato leads GI's Italian chapter.*


Lorenzo Fiato

Martin Sellner

Base of Operations

Founded in France; maintains chapters in the United Kingdom and Ireland, Germany, Austria, and Flanders, Belgium*

Website

Generation Identity UK & Ireland, Génération Identitaire (France), Identitäre Bewegung (Germany), Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (Austria), Generatie Identiteit (Flanders)

Social Media

Facebook (Italy) (discontinued), Instagram (Italy), Google+ (Italy), Facebook (Austria) (discontinued), Facebook (Flanders), Instagram (Flanders), Facebook (UK) (discontinued), Facebook (Ireland and Northern Ireland) (discontinued), Facebook (Alba/Scotland) (discontinued), Facebook (Ireland) (discontinued), Facebook (Belfast) (discontinued), Facebook (Book) (discontinued), Facebook (England) (discontinued), Facebook (Manchester) (discontinued), Facebook (Wales) (discontinued), Facebook (London) (discontinued), Facebook (Defend Europe) (discontinued), Facebook (Patriot Peer) (discontinued), Twitter (Bewegung Österreich), Twitter (Flanders), Twitter (Italy), Twitter (London) (discontinued), Twitter (Manchester), Twitter (Paris), Twitter (Saxony), Twitter (UK & Ireland) (suspended), YouTube (Italy), Twitter (Martin Sellner), YouTube (UK & Ireland), YouTube (Martin Sellner), YouTube (Defend Europe)

Membership Size and Relevance

The network includes six regional chapters across Europe and smaller subchapters within those countries. GI's original French chapter allegedly had some 2,000 members as of 2016.*

Martin Sellner maintained more than 30,000 Twitter followers and 90,165 YouTube subscribers as of March 19, 2019.* The Italian GI chapter maintained 2,915 Twitter followers and 1,232 YouTube subscribers as of March 19, 2019.* The Flanders chapter had 185 Twitter followers as of March 19, 2019.* The Saxony chapter had 1,148 Twitter followers as of March 19, 2019.* The Defend Europe YouTube page had 5,489 subscribers as of March 19, 2019.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

GI primarily targets European men and women in their 20s and 30s. The movement has a subgroup called Generation Identity Support Group (GISG), targeted to people over 40 to "help us protect our valuable heritage. A heritage that you have handed down."* GI hosts online stores that sell T-shirts and stickers with slogans such as "Stop the Great Replacement," "Chassons les Islamistes!" ("Hunt the Islamists"), "On est chez nous" ("We are home"), and "Defend Europe," and the Identitaires magazine, which reports on the activities of GI and Les Identitaires.*

On April 14, 2018, GI hosted its "European Reunion" conference in England, which reportedly drew attendees from across Europe.* GI livestreamed the conference on Facebook, drawing more than 2,000 views.* The group claimed that the event was a success, but Hope Not Hate and anti-fascist Twitter account Anti-Fascist Intel alleged that organizers were forced to relocate the conference from London to Kent the day before and that prominent speakers, including Sellner, were unable to attend.*

GI relies on its social media presence to recruit and fundraise. The Defend Europe YouTube channel includes financial appeals for future protests.* YouTube hosts multiple versions of GI's 2012 "Declaration of War" video, in which French youth declare their disenchantment with values of their parents' generation—such as diversity, sexual liberation, and social security—and declare "war" against "anti-white racism."*

Sellner also created a mobile app called Patriot Peer to connect GI members and sympathizers. After the crowdfunding website Kickstarter banned the app, Sellner turned to YouTube to raise support.* Sellner's YouTube page had 25,311 subscribers and hosted more than 140 videos as of July 3, 2018.*

In June 2018, Facebook finally took action to permanently ban GI from its platforms, citing violations of Facebook's policies on extremism and hate speech.* With the exception of the Flanders chapter's page, all of GI's Facebook and Instagram accounts appeared to have been removed as of July 3, 2018. The Defend Europe website had also been removed as of the same date, though its YouTube page remained active. Related GI Twitter accounts remained active.

Violent Activities

GI is not known to have directly instigated any violent attacks. However, the group has engaged in military-style combat training in preparation for violent confrontation.* Some of GI's protests have also directly threatened others. For example, in October 2016, GI members in Montpellier, France, built a fake wall over which they draped a banner declaring "Refugee-free Montpellier." GI's Facebook page declared that the group would not let immigrants "walk around Montpellier in peace."*

Rhetoric

Gloden Dawn

Golden Dawn

Golden Dawn is a neo-Nazi party that has risen from a marginal role in Greek politics to become the third-largest political force in Greece. Golden Dawn party members have been involved in hundreds of acts of violence against immigrants and leftists across Greece.* Golden Dawn openly advocates national socialism, racism, and anti-Semitism, and has adorned its publications and rallies with images of Adolf Hitler, the Third Reich, Rudolf Hess, the Waffen SS, and the swastika.* In 1987, Golden Dawn leader Nikolaos Michaloliakos wrote in the party magazine, "We are the faithful soldiers of the National Socialist idea and nothing else."*

Golden Dawn campaigns on a strongly anti-immigration platform. The party blames the "millions of illegal immigrants" and leftist political parties for what it deems "the dissolution of the Greek society."* Golden Dawn seeks "a Greece that belongs to the Greeks."* In a 2012 interview, two Golden Dawn parliamentarians demanded that only people with "Greek blood" should be allowed to participate in elections.*

In recent years, Golden Dawn has sought to soften its image in order to appeal to a wider spectrum of voters. When Golden Dawn organizes public events, it now rejects the neo-Nazi label and generally prefers to present itself as a "nationalist" and "patriotic" organization.* Golden Dawn leaders have claimed that prior Golden Dawn references to the Nazi Party were "youthful indiscretions."* During the 2014 European elections, many of Golden Dawn's candidates were middle-class professionals, including university professors, lawyers, surgeons, businesspeople, and a former NATO commander.* In January 2015, Golden Dawn won 17 seats in Greece's parliamentary elections to become the country's third largest party.*

Nonetheless, Golden Dawn members continue to court controversy over their far-right positions and violent actions. The Greek parliament temporarily banned Golden Dawn in June 2018 after Golden Dawn MP Konstantinos Barbarousis called for a military coup. Barbarousis was subsequently arrested on treason charges.* One ex-member of Golden Dawn has claimed that the party discussed plots to overthrow the Greek government using "tanks."* In 2013, Golden Dawn MP George Germenis attempted to strike Athens Mayor George Kaminis, who was protesting Golden Dawn members distributing food packages to ethnic Greeks while intentionally excluding immigrants. Germenis received a suspended sentence in 2018.* In 2013, Greek police arrested Golden Dawn leader Nikolaos Michaloliakos and other senior party members on charges of running an illegal organization. The trial is ongoing.*

Leadership

Nikolaos Michaloliakos founded Golden Dawn in 1985 and continues to lead the organization.*

Membership Size and Relevance

In January 2015, Golden Dawn won 17 seats in Greece's parliamentary elections, becoming the country's third largest party.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

Golden Dawn employs a range of strategies to recruit members, including grassroots mobilization. It has attracted widespread appeal, boasting thousands of members and attendants at Golden Dawn rallies.* Golden Dawn also works to appeal to Greek expatriates living in Australia, Canada, and the United States.* The group also recruits online. According to its website, Golden Dawn New York aims "to counter the lies and propaganda against Golden Dawn in the English speaking world by providing official translations of Golden Dawn articles."* Golden Dawn's Greek website outlines a list of beliefs for its members, focusing on National Socialism.*

Within Greece, Golden Dawn is heavily focused on recruiting from Greek's youth population. Golden Dawn has a youth club, Galazia Stratia (Blue Army). The group has used bribes, such as cell phones, to recruit younger members.* The group has also used gyms, athletic clubs, and martial arts clubs as grounds for recruiting youths. It actively recruits at high schools, and even stands accused of launching an indoctrination course called "National Awakening," aimed at children ages 6-10.* According to Greece's education ministry, the course, which taught subjects such as history and religion, aimed to instill a sense of Greek supremacy in youth. The competing Greek party Syriza accused Golden Dawn of "brainwashing little tots with Nazi propaganda."*

As of July 3, 2018, Golden Dawn's YouTube page had 16,381 subscribers, an increase of approximately 400 subscribers since June 24, 2018. The account also hosted more than 600 videos and had received more than 13 million views since October 2012.* The account no longer existed as of March 19, 2019. In contrast, Golden Dawn New York’s YouTube page hosted only seven videos and has only 663 subscribers as of March 19, 2019.* Golden Dawn's Twitter account had been suspended as of June 24, 2018.*

Violent Activities

During a 2015 trial of Golden Dawn members in Greece, prosecutors pointed to evidence of military training and attack battalions that, according to one ex-member of Golden Dawn, were preparing "to overthrow the Greek government."* Evidence from the prosecutors showed Golden Dawn members in military clothing wielding knives, swords, handguns, rifles, and even a bazooka.* According to the ex-member of Golden Dawn, "They kept telling us that we'll break into the parliament with tanks."*

Rhetoric

Jobbik

Jobbik

Jobbik is a neo-fascist Hungarian political party that combines militant ethno-nationalism with anti-Semitism and anti-Roma racism. A Hungarian court ruled in January 2014 that Jobbik may be referred to as "neo-Nazi" in Hungary.* Jobbik describes itself as a "principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party" whose "fundamental purpose" is the protection of "Hungarian values and interests."* Jobbik rejects "the dead-end Western European multiculturalism" and has pledged to "defend our cultural identity developed over our history."*

A group of nationalist Catholic and Protestant university students established the precursor to Jobbik, the Right-Wing Youth Association, as an alternative to the nationalist, far-right Hungarian Justice and Life Party (MEIP) after MEIP failed to win any seats in the 2002 election.* Jobbik was officially founded in October 2003 as a political party.* In Hungary's April 2018 parliamentary elections, Jobbik came in a distant second to the ruling Fidesz party, earning 19 percent of the vote to receive 26 seats. This marked a 1 percent decrease in votes for Jobbik from the 2014 election but an increase of three additional seats.*

Jobbik seeks the "reunification" of the Hungarian nation and a revision of the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, the post-World War I peace treaty between the Allied states and the Kingdom of Hungary that determined the borders of present-day Hungary.* In addition to a purported Jewish threat, Jobbik believes that the "Gypsies" are Hungary's largest problem because of "their extremely disproportionate crime rate and indolence."*

Leadership

Gabor Vona resigned as party chair in April 2018 after Jobbik's defeat in Hungary's parliamentary elections that month.* Tamás Sneider is Jobbik's president, and Márton Gyöngyösi is its executive vice president and parliamentary faction leader.*


Tamas Sneider

Márton Gyöngyösi

Base of Operations

Hungary

Website

https://www.jobbik.com/, https://www.jobbik.hu/

Social Media

Facebook, Twitter

Membership Size and Relevance

In Hungary's April 2018 parliamentary elections, Jobbik came in a distant second to the ruling Fidesz party, earning 19 percent of the vote to receive 26 seats. This marked a 1 percent decrease in votes for Jobbik from the 2014 election but an increase of three additional seats.* In 2014, Jobbik received 14.7 percent of the votes in European Parliament elections, which gave it three seats.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

Jobbik claims to represent the Hungarian people and seeks to restore a sense of nationalism that the party believes had been destroyed under Hungary's former communist regime.*

A Hungarian court ruled in January 2014 that Jobbik may be referred to as "neo-Nazi" in Hungary because of its rhetoric.* In 2008, Jobbik Chairman Gabor Vona claimed in an interview with a German neo-Nazi journal that "organized Jewry" would try to interfere in the internal affairs of Hungary. He cited "statements of the Jews in Hungary and of international Jewry that the [Hungarian] guard stands in their way and that they want to buy whole Hungary." Jobbik's blatant use of the Nazi "Arrow Cross" suggests Jobbik's pride in Hungary's Nazi past.*

Jobbik maintains a social media presence. As of July 3, 2018, the group's Twitter account had 8,787 followers.* Jobbik's Facebook account had 5,310 followers as of the same date.*

Violent Activities

In August 2007, Jobbik created the paramilitary organization Magyar Garda ("Hungarian Guard") to "carry out the real change of regime and to rescue Hungarians," according to Vona.* According to the U.S. Department of State, the guards wore the uniforms of Hungary's World War II fascist government and pledged to defend the country from "bloodsuckers."* Hungary's Metropolitan Court of Appeal disbanded the Hungarian Guard in 2009 for intimidation of Hungary's Roma community.* However, the group has since formed several successor organizations, including the New Hungarian Guard.*

  • In April 2009, a member of Magyar Garda stabbed his girlfriend to death and then carved a swastika into her back. He then draped her body in a Nazi flag. He was sentenced to life in prison in 2011.*
  • Between 2008 and 2009, four neo-Nazis murdered six Roma in Greece. Two of the attackers were members of Jobbik's Hungarian Guard who sought to provoke Romani people into violent reactions. In August 2013, three of the attackers received life sentences while the fourth was sentenced to 13 years in prison.*

Rhetoric

  • Jobbik party chairman Gábor Vona during Jobbik protests against a meeting of the World Jewish Congress in Budapest, May 2013: "The Israeli conquerors, these investors, should look for another country in the world for themselves because Hungary is not for sale."*
  • Jobbik MP Márton Gyöngyösi during Jobbik protests against a meeting of the World Jewish Congress in Budapest, May 2013: Hungary had "become subjugated to Zionism, it has become a target of colonisation while we, the indigenous people, can play only the role of extras."*
  • Jobbik statement on its website regarding Hungarian Nazi collaborator Miklós Horty, 2011: "The Horthy-era released positive élan for the nation… Under Horthy Hungary had a strong and impressing elite, which pursued the goal of the appeal of the unfair Trianon peace diktat… But since then, we have no national elite any more. During the fifty years of communism we had an internationalist elite and today we have a globalist elite. Neither of them was able and willing to represent national interests."*

Lega Nord

Lega Nord

Lega Nord ("Northern League," a.k.a. Lega or the League) is a far-right populist Italian political party that rose to prominence in 2018 on policies of anti-immigration and "Italians First."* Its leader, Matteo Salvini, views Italian culture and way of life as "under attack" and "at risk" due to mass immigration.* Ahead of Italy's March 2018 elections, the League promised to deport 400,000 immigrants and instruct asylum courts to disregard all circumstances of an applicant's journey to Italy.* The League received 17 percent of the vote in March 2018 parliamentary elections, and Salvini became Italy's interior minister.* Marine Le Pen, leader of France's far-right National Front political party, called the League's victory "the reawakening of the peoples."*

Umberto Bossi founded the League in the 1990s to represent northern Italians. He campaigned on the idea of gaining independence for a northern Italian region he called Padania. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the economic gap widened substantially between the agrarian south of Italy and the industrialized north, and consequently, many southern Italians immigrated to the north.* Bossi began to blame southern Italians for northern Italy's economic hardships, regularly demeaning them as lazy parasites living off of hardworking northerners.* In 2012, then-League politician Donatella Galli posted on Facebook her desire for three of Italy's volcanoes to destroy southern Italy. She later stated that southerners "should be placed in ovens."*

Salvini joined the League's youth wing as a teenager.* He took over the party's leadership from Bossi in 2013.* In 2014, Salvini expanded the party's reach beyond Italy's northern region and targeted Italy as a whole. The international news organization The Local dubbed him "the rising star of the Italian right."* In May 2015 regional elections, the League received 20 percent of the vote in Tuscany. Salvini called the results "proof that the days are over when we were labeled as a crazy far-right party."*

Nonetheless, the League has maintained its populist positions, casting the European Union as a threat to Italy's sovereignty while blaming immigrants and minorities for diluting the Italian identity. The League believes that the European Union has harmed Italy's economy. Salvini has derided the euro as a "German currency,"* labeling it a "crime against humanity."* The League's manifesto calls for Italy to exit the European Union unless all relevant treaties are renegotiated to restore Italy's "full and legitimate sovereignty."* In 2009, Salvini called for "Milanese-only" train cars following reports of an increased immigrant population in Milan.* In September 2014, League politician Andrea Della Puppa posted a series of images to his Facebook account, including one of Adolf Hitler, suggesting that immigrants should be burned to death.*

In June 2018, Italy's Roma and Jewish communities condemned Salvini as racist after he called for a census of the Roma community in Italy. Critics compared the proposal to race laws under dictator Benito Mussolini.* Earlier in June, Salvini refused to allow a German NGO migrant rescue ship carrying more than 600 people to dock in Italy. Salvini tweeted that "Italy has stopped bowing its head to obey…."*

Leadership

Matteo Salvini took over the leadership of the League from founder Umberto Bossi in 2013.*


Matteo Salvini
Umberto Bossi

Base of Operations

Italy

Website

https://www.leganord.org/

Social Media

Facebook (Salvini), Facebook, Twitter (Salvini)

Membership Size and Relevance

The League won 17 percent of the vote in Italy's March 2018 parliamentary elections, making it the third-largest party in parliament. League leader Matteo Salvini became Italy's interior minister in June 2018.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

League founder Umberto Bossi castigated southern Italians and called for a separate northern Italian nation. When Salvini took control of the League in 2013, the party polled at 4 percent nationwide, below Italy's electoral threshold. Salvini ended the League's propaganda against southerners, instead promoting the idea of a united Italy that has been taken advantage of by the European Union. By 2016, the League was polling at between 16 percent and 17 percent.*

Both the League and Salvini maintain active social media accounts. As of July 3, 2018, Salvini's Twitter account had more than 804,000 followers, representing an increase of 6,000 since June 26, 2018.* Salvini's Facebook account had 2,794,237 likes as of July 3, 2018, representing an increase of almost 33,000 likes from June 26, 2018.* The League's Facebook account had 437,731 likes as of July 3, 3018, representing an increase of almost 3,000 since June 26, 2018.*

Violent Activities

The League is not directly tied to any violent activities.

Rhetoric

Les Identitaires

Les Identitaires

Les Identitaires is a far-right anti-Muslim, anti-immigrant French group created in 2003 as Bloc Identitaire to defend the French identity from what it considered harmful foreign influences. The group changed its name in 2016, promising to be a "centre of agitation and training."* Les Identitaires members consider themselves to be patriots and nationalists rather than anti-Muslim or racist. Nonetheless, the group opposes globalization and believes that Muslim immigrants to Europe are invaders who threaten European identity.* Les Identitaires' youth wing, Generation Identity, has spread to five other European regions outside of France.*

Les Identitaires has staged numerous demonstrations in and around France's majority Muslim areas in order to protest what it considers attacks on French values. In 2006, Bloc Identitaires launched a campaign to distribute soup to homeless people in predominately Muslim neighborhoods, although the soup was intentionally made with pork to exclude Muslims and Jews.* French authorities shut down the soup kitchens in February 2006, declaring that they intentionally discriminated against Muslims and Jews.*

In June 2010, Bloc Identitaire held a pork sausage party in Paris at the Arc de Triomphe. The event, which was originally planned to take place outside of a mosque, was moved after police banned the group from rallying outside of the mosque on grounds of maintaining public order. An estimated 7,000 people registered to attend through Facebook.* In 2011, the group staged a "march of pigs" protest in French neighborhoods with large Muslim populations. The Identitarians feasted on wine and pork, both of which are prohibited under Islamic dietary laws, claiming that such things would soon be illegal in France because of Muslim immigration.*

In 2007, Bloc Identitaire co-founder Philippe Vardon was fined and imprisoned for incitement to discrimination after the Identitarian Youth wing—which he led at the time—distributed pamphlets casting Muslim immigrants as rapists.*

Though Bloc Identitaire became a political party in 2009, it considered the far-right National Front party a political ally and distanced itself from political races where it might challenge the National Front. In 2016, the group changed its name to Les Identitaires, alleging that it would act as a "centre of agitation and training" and a "launch pad of the main identity offensives."* The group continues to publish propaganda and organize events.*

Leadership

Fabrice Robert and Philippe Vardon founded Bloc Identitaire in 2003.* Robert and Jean-David Cattin took over the leadership of Les Identitaires in 2016.* Vardon reportedly led Les Identitaires as of April 2017.*


Fabrice Robert

Philippe Vardon

Base of Operations

Nice, France*

Website

http://www.les-identitaires.com/

Social Media

Facebook (discontinued), Twitter, Twitter (Philippe Vardon), YouTube

Membership Size and Relevance

Les Identitaires has estimated its membership at around 4,000, but authorities doubt the veracity of the group's numbers.* Though French far-right political party National Front has denied ties to Les Identitaires, it has reportedly looked to the group as an "idea box."* Les Identitaires leader Philippe Vardon is also a regional councilor for the National Front, and worked on the social media team of National Front leader Marine Le Pen's presidential campaign in 2017.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

As of July 2, 2018, the group's YouTube page had only 198 subscribers and hosted five videos that had collectively received over 12,478 views. The group gained 27 subscribers between March 15, 2018, and July 2, 2018.* The group had more than 13,200 followers on Twitter as of July 3, 2018, representing a gain of more than 1,000 followers since March 15, 2018.* The group's Facebook page had more than 58,000 followers as of March 15, 2018, but was shut down as of July 3, 2018.*

Les Identitaires requests donations through its website to fund its propaganda materials, meetings, training, and travel.* The group also shares a "Boutique" webstore with its youth wing, Generation Identity. The online store sells shirts, flags, and stickers with slogans such as "On est chez nous" ("We are home") and "Defend Europe."* The site also sells Identitaires magazine, a glossy magazine that reports on the activities of Les Identitaires and Generation Identity.*

Violent Activities

Les Identitaires officially rejects violence, but its protests have at times devolved into violent confrontations with counter-protesters.

Rhetoric

National Action

National Action

National Action is a British far-right, neo-Nazi, white supremacist group that emerged in 2013.* The group, which aims to enact its vision that "Britain should be for British people,"* has held rallies and demonstrations at which supporters have declared that "Hitler was right" and warned against "the disease of international Jewry," which will eventually end "in the chambers"––referring to Nazi gas chambers.* During a 2014 demonstration in Liverpool, National Action members distributed pamphlets calling to "Cleanse Britain of parasites. The white man is on the march – white power."* The British government designated National Action as a terrorist group in 2016, marking the first time that membership of a far-right group had been prohibited in the United Kingdom since World War II.*

National Action praised the June 2016 murder of Member of Parliament Jo Cox by the far-right ultra-nationalist Thomas Mair. National Action members reportedly adopted the extremist language that Mair used during his trial, calling for "death to traitors, freedom for Britain." The phrase appeared on National Action's website before the site was removed.*

British police reportedly arrested 22 members of National Action throughout 2016.* That December, then-U.K. Home Secretary Amber Rudd banned National Action, officially classifying the group as a terrorist organization and outlawing membership and support of the group. Rudd declared National Action to be "a racist, antisemitic and homophobic organization which stirs up hatred, glorifies violence and promotes a vile ideology…It has absolutely no place in a Britain that works for everyone."* Despite the proscription, National Action has not disbanded. In January 2018, British police arrested six suspected National Action members. According to whistleblower Robbie Mullen during the suspects' June 2018 trial, the group has maintained its organizational structure and continued to meet without the official label of National Action. He further described combat training camps where members learned hand-to-hand fighting.* Mullen described plans to kill a Labour Party parliamentarian and preparation for a so-called "white jihad."*

Leadership

Benjamin Raymond was revealed as National Action's leader and Alex Davies as the group's co-leader in 2014.* During the 2018 trial of alleged National Action member Jack Renshaw, former member Robbie Mullen testified that Christopher Lythgoe led the group and organized combat training.*


Benjamin Raymond

Alex Davies

Christopher Lythgoe

Base of Operations

United Kingdom

Website

http://nationalaction.info/ (decommissioned)

Social Media

National Action previously used Facebook, Twitter, and VK, but its accounts have since been shut down.*

Membership Size and Relevance

The membership size is not determined.

Recruitment and Propaganda

National Action initially targeted students, particularly between the ages of 16 and 25. The group was "a general reaction to the malaise in the current scene of the British right," according to one of its members.* An insider told the British Sun newspaper that meetings would attract about 30 "youngsters," many of whom weren't even old enough to drive or go to bars.* In June 2016, National Action held a Miss Hitler contest to raise awareness of female white supremacists. The identity of the Scottish woman who won the contest was concealed, but when asked by National Action's website whom she'd like to kill, she responded that she would put German Chancellor Angela Merkel "in one of her camps and let her pet refugees do the rest."*

In March 2018, British Member of Parliament Yvette Cooper accused YouTube of complicity for failing to remove a video of a National Action rally from 2016. Cooper flagged the video at least seven times with no action taken by YouTube.*

Violent Activities

National Action has not been linked to specific violent attacks. Nonetheless, the group's rhetoric threatens violence to initiate its belief that "Britain should be for British people,"* and some of its members allegedly attend military-style training camps in preparation for violence, where judo, kickboxing, and street fighting are reportedly taught.* During his 2018 trial, alleged National Action member Jack Renshaw admitted to buying a knife in order to kill Labour MP Rosie Cooper.*

Rhetoric

Nordic Resistance Movement

Nordic Resistance Movement

Formed by neo-Nazi nationalists in Sweden in 1997, the Nordic Resistance Movement (Nordiska motståndsrörelsen, or NRM) is a transnational, neo-Nazi organization with official chapters operating in Sweden, Finland, and Norway. The NRM also draws support from neo-Nazis in Denmark and Iceland, though the group has failed to establish formal branches in those countries.* A 2017 report by European anti-racism organization Expo named NRM as the primary force responsible for a rise in neo-Nazi activity in Sweden in 2016.*

The NRM subscribes to a nationalist socialist, or neo-Nazi, ideology that is avowedly anti-Semitic, anti-gay, anti-immigrant, pro-white, and pro-Hitler. The NRM has held numerous anti-immigration rallies, and has hung signs throughout Sweden, Finland, and Norway reading "Refugees Are Not Welcome."* In its 2015 party platform "Our Path," the NRM warns that the Nordic states—as well as the entire Western world—are controlled by the "global Zionist elite."* The NRM thus seeks to "regain power" from that elite and unite the Nordic states into a "Nordic Nation" able to "assert itself militarily, economically and culturally."*

NRM members reportedly receive martial arts training and are educated on how to respond if fighting arises in the streets.* In addition, the group previously sold a knife inscribed with the maxim "The struggle demands more than only words."* In a 2016 interview, NRM-Sweden leader Simon Lindberg said that he joined the group because its members are "strong in the streets, they dare to fight back the scum."* However, Swedish prosecutors believe that three NRM-Sweden members—charged in June 2017 in connection to three bombings on a far-left café and two refugee centers in November 2016 and January 2017—were "dissatisfied" that NRM leadership had not wanted to use violence "to the same extent" as the three men. Prosecutors believe that two of those men had received military training in Russia before returning to Sweden to carry out the bombings, though it is unclear from whom they received training.*

NRM-Sweden officially registered as a political party in July 2015 under the name "Nordiska motståndsrörelsen"—the same name used for the larger NRM-Sweden movement. The group was inspired to enter politics after one of its key members, Pär Öberg, was elected in 2014 as a write-in candidate for the Sweden Democrats party in the Ludvika municipality's local elections.* However, NRM-Sweden is not believed to have made political gains, and the movement is reported to lend most of its efforts to extra-parliamentary activities, such as violence, intimidation, and crime.* Finland banned the NRM in November 2017, but the group has continued to stage demonstrations there while appealing the decision.*

Leadership

Simon Lindberg is the leader of NRM-Sweden.* Emil Hagberg is the spokesman of NRM-Sweden.* Haakon Forwald is the leader of NRM-Norway.* Tommy Olsen is the deputy leader of NRM-Norway.* Otto Rutanen is the leader of NRM-Finland.* Antti Niemi is the deputy leader of NRM-Finland.*


Simon Lindberg

Haakon Forwald

Tommy Olsen

Otto Rutanen

Antti Niemi

Base of Operations

Sweden, Finland, and Norway*

Website

http://www.nordiska-motstandsrorelsen.se/; https://www.frihetskamp.net/

Social Media

Twitter (suspended), Twitter (Frihetskamp Media) (suspended), Twitter (Simon Lindberg) (suspended), Vimeo (Frihetskamp Media), VK, VK (Frihetskamp Media), YouTube, YouTube (Frihetskamp Media)

Membership Size and Relevance

The NRM is believed to comprise between 250 to 300 core members spread throughout Sweden, Norway, and Finland—though the group may attract many more sympathizers.* In November 2016, NRM-Sweden alone drew a total of 600 demonstrators in its largest rally to date.* According to a May 2015 estimate by the Finnish-owned media outlet Yle, NRM-Finland is comprised of approximately 60 to 70 core members.* The Norwegian-owned NRK media company reported in February 2017 that each country's branch contains "a dozen" core activists.*

NRM’s YouTube page had 11,444 subscribers as of March 19, 2019.* Frihetskamp Media’s YouTube page had 685 subscribers as of the same date.*

Recruitment and Propaganda

In recent years, the NRM has capitalized on the influx of refugees from the Middle East and North Africa in an attempt to spread fear, recruit, and further its agenda. According to the anti-racism organization Expo, NRM-Sweden has grown more than one-third in size since the beginning of 2015 by advocating against Sweden's open-door policy to Muslim asylum seekers through anti-immigration rallies and signs throughout Sweden, Finland, and Norway.* The NRM also produces manuals, stickers, leaflets, and flyers, which it distributes at rallies, on the streets, and in mailboxes.*

The NRM has noted that all of its funding comes from "member donations and sympathetic individuals and organizations."* The NRM specifically requests donations through Frihetskamp, the news website owned and operated by the group's Norwegian branch.*

NRM's Twitter account had approximately 13,700 followers as of July 3, 2018.* Frihetskamp Media's Twitter account had 729 followers, and its YouTube account had 651 subscribers and hosted more than 40 videos, which had collectively received more than 104,000 views.* NRM's YouTube account had more than 11,600 subscribers and hosted more than 400 videos, which had collectively received more than 6.4 million views. Between June 24, 2018, and July 3, 2018, NRM's YouTube account gained 600 subscribers.* NRM-Norway's news website Frihetskamp claims that it receives at least 60,000 unique visitors each month.* The site also claims it "dares to challenge the old, often Jewish owned and/or controlled, mass media empires."*

Violent Activities

NRM leaders and members have carried out numerous attacks against gay people, Muslim asylum seekers, and the group's ideological adversaries. In 2017, the European NGO Expo found that a quarter of NRM's members had been convicted of violent crime.*

Rhetoric

  • NRM Website, June 2017: "The homolobby promotes popular enemy decadence and anti-culture, which helps to undermine and dissolve the natural structures of society. Thus, the very premise of a further existence for our people."*
  • NRM Manual, August 2016: "The [NRM] has gone to battle against the enemies of the Nordic region, and continuously fights for the freedom and survival of the Nordic people - in a future free and united nation-socialist Nordic region."*
  • NRM-Sweden spokesman Emil Hagberg in an interview with London's Daily Mail, February 2016: "We are National Socialists [Nazis]. Our main aim is the protection of Sweden's [white] people and culture. We don't want our [white] people to disappear from the earth. People come to us because they see the streets are full of Somalis and Syrians and they are starting to listen to us because we have been warning of the dangers of immigration for years."*
  • NRM-Sweden leader Simon Lindberg in an interview with National Vanguard, June 2016: "[NRM members are] strong in the streets, they dare to fight back the scum."*
  • NRM-Sweden official statement praising an attack on refugee children by a mob of Swedish nationalists in Stockholm's central train station, January 2016: "Police have clearly shown that they lack the means to stave off [the refugees'] rampage, and we now see no other alternative than to ourselves hand out the punishments they deserve."*
  • Party platform, 2015: "From our point of view, National Socialism [Nazism], [as] proven during the short time it held power in Germany, has been the only form of government that has significantly threatened the destructive forces [i.e. Zionism] that rule the world. From 1945 until today, these same destructive forces have continually conducted political genocide against the Nordic and ethnic peoples of Europe. They recognize National Socialism as the chief enemy of their worldview, because it delivers a strategy of survival for our race…."*