Antisemitism Resurgent: Manifestations of Antisemitism in the 21st Century

Antisemitism By The Numbers

On October 7, 2023, Hamas launched a surprise attack on Israel, killing at least 1,200 people and taking more than 240 hostages into the Gaza Strip. In response, Israel declared war on Hamas and launched a ground invasion of Gaza.* The ensuing war brought with it a spike in anti-Israel and antisemitic sentiment. Before the end of October 2023, antisemitic incidents in the United States had already increased 388 percent between October 7 and October 23 when compared with the prior year. Data from the Anti-Defamation League showed 312 incidents of antisemitic harassment, vandalism, and assault in the U.S. The ADL directly linked 190 of those incidents to the Israel-Hamas war. The ADL recorded 64 antisemitic incidents during the same period in 2022.* The New York Police Department (NYPD) reported a 200 percent increase in antisemitic hate crimes—69 incidents in total—in New York City in October 2023, compared with only 22 in October 2022.* Jewish students at schools such as Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, Yale, and Harvard have also reported harassment.* At Cornell University, a student allegedly threatened to stab and rape Jewish students and “shoot up” the school, resulting in increased police presence around Jewish institutions over the last weekend of October.* In testimony to Congress on October 31, FBI director Christopher Wray warned of rising antisemitism levels, as well as the threat of lone wolf attackers drawing inspiration from Hamas.*

While many of October’s antisemitic incidents were linked to the Israel-Hamas war, the increasing threat follows a national trend over several years. The ADL recorded more than 3,600 antisemitic incidents in 2022, making it the highest number of antisemitic incidents in the United States on record.* Previously, 2021 was the most antisemitic year in the past decade, according to the annual Antisemitism Report of 2021 by the World Zionist Organization (WZO) and the Jewish Agency (JAFI). While no Jews were killed in antisemitic attacks in 2021, the report found an average of 10 antisemitic incidents per day during the year. Almost 50 percent of all antisemitic incidents in 2021 took place in Europe, but Canada and Australia also recorded substantial increases in antisemitism in 2021 over 2020. Major U.S. cities also saw significant increases. New York registered a 100 percent increase in antisemitic incidents over 2020 (503 reported incidents in 2021 versus 252 in 2020), while Los Angeles recorded a 59.1 percent increase in antisemitic incidents in the first six months of 2021.* The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) recorded 2,717 antisemitic incidents of assault, harassment, and vandalism across the United States in 2021, an increase of 34 percent from 2020 and the highest number recorded since the ADL began its annual audit in 1979.*“Audit of Antisemitic Incidents 2021,” Anti-Defamation League, April 26, 2022, According to a B’nai Brith Canada annual audit, Canada recorded a record 2,799 antisemitic hate crimes in 2021, an increase of 7 percent from 2020. The group further noted an increase in violent incidents from nine in 2020 to 75 in 2021.*Cnaan Liphshiz, “Antisemitic incidents reach 10-year high in the Netherlands,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 27, 2022,

The rising numbers give credence to feelings within the Jewish community that antisemitism has been flourishing in recent years. According to an October 2019 poll by the American Jewish Committee (AJC), 38 percent of respondents believe antisemitism in the United States is a serious problem, while 50 percent believe it to be somewhat of a problem. The poll of 1,283 American Jews over age 18 also found that 84 percent of Jews believe antisemitism had increased in the past five years.*“AJC Survey of American Jews on Antisemitism in America,” American Jewish Committee, October 23, 2019, In the same poll, 42 percent reported they felt the status of Jews in the United States was less secure than it had been a year ago, while 36 percent reported that college campuses had become more hostile to pro-Israel students over the preceding year.*“AJC Survey of American Jews on Antisemitism in America,” American Jewish Committee, October 23, 2019,

These beliefs are substantiated by international polling about antisemitic beliefs. A June 2019 poll of 1,000 Americans by the Public Religion Research Institute on whether small businesses should be able to refuse service based on proprietors’ religious beliefs found that a growing number believe it is permissible to refuse service to Jews. According to the poll, 19 percent felt it was permissible to refuse service to Jews if doing so violated religious beliefs. This marks an increase from 12 percent in 2014. The poll also found this belief had mostly increased among political and religious subgroups and gender lines:

  • Men: 22 percent in 2019 versus approximately 10 percent in 2014
  • Women: 16 percent in 2019 versus approximately 10 percent in 2014
  • Republicans: 24 percent in 2019 versus 16 percent in 2014
  • Democrats: 17 percent in 2019 versus 9 percent in 2014
  • White evangelical Protestants: 24 percent in 2019 versus 12 percent in 2014
  • White mainline Protestants: 26 percent in 2019 versus 11 percent in 2014
  • Catholics: 20 percent in 2019 versus 10 percent in 2014
  • Nonwhite Protestants: 19 percent in 2019 versus 14 percent in 2014
  • Religiously unaffiliated: 11 percent in 2019 versus 11 percent in 2014.*Robert P. Jones, Natalie Jackson, Maxine Najle, Oyindamola Bola, and Daniel Greenberg, “Increasing Support for Religiously Based Service Refusals,” Public Religion Research Institute, June 25, 2019,

Violence against Jews and Jewish targets has spiked in recent years. The 2021 ADL audit recorded 88 incidents of antisemitic assault in the United States. The ADL noted none of the 2021 incidents were deadly or resulted in mass casualties. Nonetheless, the findings represented a 167 percent increase from 33 incidents in 2020.*“Audit of Antisemitic Incidents 2021,” Anti-Defamation League, April 26, 2022, Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU) recorded 387 assaults targeting Jews worldwide in 2018, a 13 percent increase over the previous year.*Aron Heller, “Anti-Semitic attacks spike, killing most Jews in decades,” Associated Press, May 1, 2019, That trend continued through 2019 when TAU researchers recorded 456 major violent incidents worldwide, which they defined as arson, weapon attacks, weaponless attacks, serious threats, and vandalism or desecration.*Moshe Kantor Database for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism,“Antisemitism Worldwide 2019 and the Beginning of 2020,” Tel Aviv University, 194, While more than one-quarter of these attacks took place in the United States, the increase was most noticeable in Western Europe.*Aron Heller, “Anti-Semitic attacks spike, killing most Jews in decades,” Associated Press, May 1, 2019,

Europe also reported increases in antisemitism in 2021. The 2021 WZO and JAFI report found Europe recorded more antisemitic incidents that year than any other continent, with almost 50 percent of all global antisemitic incidents reported from Europe.* The Jewish nonprofit Community Security Trust (CST) in the United Kingdom reported a 34 percent increase in antisemitic incidents in 2021, rising to 2,255 from 1,684 in 2020.*Allegra Goodwin and Richard Allen Greene, “UK anti-Semitism reaches record high in 2021, report says,” CNN, February 9, 2022, In the Netherlands, the Center for Information and Documentation on Israel (CIDI) recorded a 10-year high of 183 antisemitic incidents, representing a 35 percent increase from 2020.*Cnaan Liphshiz, “Antisemitic incidents reach 10-year high in the Netherlands,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 27, 2022, The Foundation Jewish Contemporary Documentation Center (CDEC) in Italy recorded 226 antisemitic incidents in 2021, a minor decrease from the 230 recorded in 2020.*Cnaan Liphshiz, “Antisemitic incidents reach 10-year high in the Netherlands,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 27, 2022, Germany’s Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution recorded 3,027 antisemitic incidents in 2021, an almost 29 percent increase from 2,351 in 2020. In a June 2022 report, the Berlin-based Amadeu Antonio Foundation warned of rising antisemitism related to the Ukraine war and the glorification of terrorist attacks on Israeli civilians, which altogether posed an “acute threat to Jewish life in Germany.”*Toby Axelrod, “German government reports startling 29% increase in antisemitic crimes,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 9, 2022,

Levels of antisemitism and antisemitic violence have risen across Europe since 2014. According to a July 2019 United Nations report, 89 percent of respondents living in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom believe antisemitism has increased within the past five years. France recorded an 84 percent increase in violent antisemitic attacks from 2017 to 2018. Germany’s Federal Ministry of the Interior recorded an annual increase of 13.5 percent in antisemitic incidents between 2015 and 2018. Violent antisemitic incidents in Germany increased by almost 37 percent during that time period.*E. Tendayi Achiume, “Contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance,” U.N. General Assembly, July 30, 2019, 10-11, Of the 3,027 antisemitic incidents in Germany in 2021, 2,552 were attributed to neo-Nazi ideology. The government also recorded 122 incidents of Islamic extremist antisemitism, an increase from 26 in 2020.*Toby Axelrod, “German government reports startling 29% increase in antisemitic crimes,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 9, 2022,

The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention recorded 280 antisemitic hate crimes in 2018, the highest number of yearly incidents on record and a 53 percent increase over the 182 incidents recorded in 2016. The United Kingdom recorded 1,652 antisemitic incidents in 2018, the highest number on record and a 16 percent increase over 2017.*“2017 Annual Review,” Community Security Trust, accessed October 28, 2019,; “2018 Annual Review,” Community Security Trust, accessed October 28, 2019, Incidents included physical attacks on victims as young as 11, vandalism of synagogues, and antisemitic abuse of Jewish members of parliament. The Community Security Trust (CST), the central umbrella organization for the U.K. Jewish community, reported that the figures represented the continuation of a growing trend over the past two years. According to the CST, “this sustained high level of antisemitic incidents suggests a longer-term phenomenon in which people with antisemitic attitudes appear to be more confident to express their views, while incident victims and reporters may be more motivated to report the antisemitism they experience or encounter.”*Lizzie Dearden, “More than 100 antisemitic incidents recorded in UK every month as bigots ‘become more confident,’” Independent (London), July 26, 2018,

In the United States, the FBI recorded a total of 7,314 hate crime incidents in 2019, an increase from 7,120 in 2018 and the highest number since 2008. Of those 7,314 incidents, 1,650 offenses were motivated by religious bias and 60.3 percent of those incidents targeted Jews.*“2019 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI, November 2020, 1, 3,; Masood Farivar, “FBI: Hate Crime Incidents Rose 2.7% in 2019,”.Voice of America, November 16, 2020, Jews comprised 56.9 percent of the 1,617 victims of religious bias crimes recorded by the FBI in 2018.*“Uniform Crime Report – Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI, Fall 2019, The FBI’s statistics over the 10-year period between 2009 and 2018 demonstrate that Jews have consistently been the largest group targeted group by bias crimes in the United States.*“2001 Uniform Crime Report,” FBI, October 2002, 5,


Number of Reported Anti-Religious Bias Crimes

Percentage Targeting Jews



60.3*“2019 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI, November 2020, 1, 3,; Masood Farivar, “FBI: Hate Crime Incidents Rose 2.7% in 2019,” Voice of America, November 16, 2020,



56.9*“Uniform Crime Report – Hate Crime Statistics, 2018,” FBI, Fall 2019,



58.1*“Uniform Crime Report – Hate Crime Statistics, 2017,” FBI, Fall 2018,



54.2*“Uniform Crime Report – Hate Crime Statistics, 2016,” FBI, November 13, 2017,



51.3*“2015 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2015, November 14, 2016,



58.2*“2014 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2014, November 16, 2015,



59.2*“2013 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2013, December 8, 2014,



62.4*“2012 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2012, accessed November 4, 2019,



63.2*“2011 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2011, accessed November 4, 2019,



67*“2010 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2010, accessed November 4, 2019,



71.9*“2010 Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI Uniform Crime Report 2009, accessed November 4, 2019,

Local and state authorities are not required to submit statistics to the FBI for inclusion in its UCR.*“Hate Crime Statistics,” FBI, accessed November 4, 2019, In October 2019, the New York Police Department (NYPD) reported an increase in hate crimes targeting Jews in the first nine months of 2019 compared with the same period in 2018. The NYPD recorded 311 hate crimes from January through September 2019, 163 of which (52 percent) targeted Jews. During the same period in 2018, the NYPD recorded 250 hate crimes, 108 of which (43 percent) targeted Jews.*Ben Sales, “Anti-Semitic hate crimes in NYC have risen significantly in 2019,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 4, 2019,

Since the October 2018 Tree of Life murders, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of publicly reported attacks against people who are visibly Jewish, particularly in areas of New York City and other areas with significant Jewish populations. For example, two identifiably Jewish men were physically assaulted in separate incidents in Brooklyn, New York, on January 30, 2019, resulting in the arrest of two individuals for assault and hate crimes.*Marcy Oster, “2 Jewish men assaulted in Brooklyn’s Crown Heights neighborhood,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 31, 2019, On August 27, 2019, a 64-year-old rabbi was hit in the head with a brick while walking to synagogue in Brooklyn.*Laura E. Adkins, “64-year-old Brooklyn rabbi hit in head with brick,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, August 27, 2019,

On one hand, the increased numbers are indicative of better reporting of antisemitic crimes to law enforcement and amplified public awareness. Still, the numbers point to a worrisome trend of increased Jewish harassment and persecution. Speaking to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency in September 2019, Deborah Lautner, the head of New York City’s new Office for the Prevention of Hate Crimes, suggested multiple possible reasons for the increase, from hostility from New York’s other ethnic communities and increasingly antagonistic rhetoric from elected officials, to wider press coverage leading to copycats.*Ben Sales, “Here’s how New York City’s new hate crimes chief plans to tackle rising anti-Semitism,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, September 5, 2019,

On October 27, 2018, Robert Bowers killed 11 people in an attack on the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was the deadliest attack on a synagogue in U.S. history.*Campbell Robertson, Christopher Mele and Sabrina Tavernise, “11 Killed in Synagogue Massacre; Suspect Charged with 29 Counts,” New York Times, October 27, 2018, Following the Pittsburgh attack, U.S. media reported an increased number of antisemitic vandalism and attacks on Jewish sites around the United States.*Steve Lipman, “Increasingly On Edge, Jews Asking: How Bad Is It?” New York Jewish Week, November 6, 2018, According to the 2018 Global anti-Semitism Report, released by the Israeli government in January 2019, 13 Jews were killed in antisemitic attacks worldwide in 2018, the highest number recorded in decades.*Agence France-Presse, “Anti-Semitic killings in 2018 ‘highest’ in decades: Israel,” Yahoo News, January 27, 2019,

Major attacks like that at the Tree of Life and the April 2019 attack on the Chabad house in Poway, California, were perpetrated by individuals who expressed their hatred of Jews in the language of the far right. According to authorities, Bowers accused Jews during the attack of “committing genocide of my people” and so he “just wanted to kill Jews.”*Chas Danner and Adam K. Raymond, “What to Know About the Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting,” Intelligencer, October 28, 2018, On April 27, 2019, John Earnest attacked the Chabad house in Poway, California, on the last day of Passover, killing one and wounding three others. Had his assault weapon not malfunctioned, the death toll would have likely been much higher. Earnest claimed inspiration from Brenton Tarrant, who killed 51 people during twin mosque shootings in New Zealand a month before.*“California Man Charged with Federal Hate Crimes for Poway Synagogue Shooting,” U.S. Department of Justice, May 9, 2019,; “Accused Poway synagogue gunman pleads not guilty to deadly shooting,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 6, 2019,; “Online Manifestos Inspire Other Extremists,” State of New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness, May 1, 2019, On October 9, 2019, during Yom Kippur, Stephan Balliet attacked the Humbolt Street synagogue in Halle, Germany, killing two. Authorities said Balliet was motivated by antisemitic and far-right ideologies. *Marcy Oster, “German synagogue attacker confesses and says he had anti-Semitic motive,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 13, 2019,; Sven Robel, “Halle-Attentäter wurde von Unbekanntem finanziell unterstützt,” Der Spiege (Berlin), October 11, 2019,; Petra Sorge, Ruth Bender, and Sara Germano, “German Man Arrested After Failed Attack on Synagogue,” Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2019,; Marcy Oster, “Germany’s chief prosecutor says Halle shooting suspect planned a ‘massacre,’” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 10, 2019,

By the end of 2019, antisemitic attacks in the United States reached a four-decade high, according to the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The organization recorded a 56 percent increase in assaults over the previous year, resulting in five fatalities.*“Antisemitic Incidents Hit All-Time High in 2019,” Anti-Defamation League, May 12, 2020, French police recorded 687 antisemitic acts in 2019, including vandalism and physical threats.*“Paris prosecutors investigate apparent anti-Semitic attack,” Associated Press, August 12, 2020,

The timeline below highlights major violent attacks from the year 2000 through 2022. It also examines the motives of the attackers when possible. The attacks included are specifically violent and targeted primarily at Jewish institutions and religious observances, such as Passover seders or Chanukah parties. The timeline also includes major attacks on individual Jews.

Timeline of Major Violent Attacks on Jews, 2000 – 2022*This list does not include suicide bombings and other attacks inside Israel during the Second Intifada between 2000 and 2005. The exception is Hamas’s Passover bombing, which specifically targeted a Jewish religious event.x:

An examination of violent antisemitic attacks on Jews and Jewish institutions of the twenty-first century reveals the patterns of who is threatening the Jewish community. Of the recorded major attacks in the United States between 2000 and 2020, one attacker—Naveed Afzal Haq in the July 2006 Seattle shooting—claimed he was directly motivated to attack Jews because of his Muslim identity and anger over U.S.-Israeli policies. Four other U.S. attacks were identifiably motivated by white nationalism. One unsuccessful December 2018 plot drew inspiration from both white nationalism and Islamism. That month, the FBI arrested 21-year-old Dutch native Damon Joseph on charges of plotting to attack a synagogue in Toledo, Ohio. Joseph told an undercover FBI agent that he wanted to kill a rabbi and was inspired by the Pittsburgh attack. Joseph went by the name Abdullah Ali Yusuf and was charged with attempting to provide material support to ISIS.*Marcy Oster, “Ohio man arrested for planning deadly attack on synagogue,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 10, 2018,; “Suspect in Ohio synagogue bombing plan indicted on federal hate crimes charge,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 31, 2019, Authorities in Las Vegas, Nevada, stopped another attack on August 8, 2019, when they arrested Conor Climo for planning to bomb a synagogue or LGBTQ club.*Marcy Oster, “Las Vegas man planned to bomb local synagogue, federal authorities charge,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, August 11, 2019, In February 2020, Climo pleaded guilty to possession of an unregistered firearm—specifically, the component parts of a destructive device. Climo had also been in communication with members of the white supremacist group Feuerkrieg Division, a European offshoot of the U.S.-based Atomwaffen Division.*“Las Vegas Man Pleads Guilty To Possession Of Bomb-Making Components,” U.S. Department of Justice, February 10, 2020,

While white nationalists have largely—but not exclusively—carried out violent anti-Jewish attacks in the United States, Arab and Muslim assailants have been largely responsible for attacks in Europe. Further, the European attackers have more often claimed affiliation with a larger jihadist terrorist network, such as al-Qaeda or ISIS. Mohamed Merah, who killed four people at the Ozar Hatorah Jewish School in Toulouse, France, in March 2012, was affiliated with al-Qaeda and claimed during a standoff with police that he was avenging the deaths of Palestinians while attacking France for banning Islamic veils. Merah died during the confrontation.*Harriet Alexander and Fiona Govan, “Toulouse shootings: the making of a French jihadi killer with a double life,” Telegraph (London), March 24, 2012, Mehdi Nemmouche, who killed four in a 2014 attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels, Belgium, was a former ISIS fighter whose lawyer claimed he was targeting Mossad (Israel’s national intelligence agency) agents during his assault on the museum.*“Brussels Jewish Museum murders: Mehdi Nemmouche guilty,” BBC News, March 7, 2019,

Two U.S. attacks that do not fit into the far-right/Islamist paradigm are the December 10, 2019, attack on a kosher supermarket in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the December 28, 2019, attack on a Chanukah party in Monsey, New York. The Jersey City attack left three people dead, as well as the two attackers, David Anderson and Francine Graham. Anderson had previously belonged to a group known as the Black Hebrew Israelites, a U.S. religious movement that believes that Blacks, not modern Jews, are the true descendants of the ancient tribes of Israel. Sects within the movement, which has been dubbed a hate group by anti-extremism experts, stand accused of trading in racism and antisemitism. There are divergences within the larger movement and not all Black Israelites groups adhere to the same antisemitic propaganda.*Sam Kestenbaum, “Who are the Black Israelites at the center of the viral standoff at the Lincoln Memorial?,” Washington Post, January 22, 2019,; David Porter and Michael R. Sisak, “Jersey City attack being investigated as domestic terrorism,” Associated Press, December 13, 2019,; Sarah Maslin Nir, “Black Hebrew Israelites: What We Know About the Fringe Group,” New York Times, December 12, 2019, In the second attack, an African American man identified as Grafton E. Thomas attacked a Chanukah party in Monsey, New York, killing one and wounding four.*Rebecca Liebson, Christina Goldbaum, Joseph Goldstein, and Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, “Intruder Screamed ‘I’ll Get You’ in Attack on Jews at Rabbi’s Home,” New York Times, December 28, 2019, According to the criminal complaint against him, Thomas had searched the Internet for Nazi-related terms, as well as “why did Hitler hate the Jews” and “prominent companies founded by Jews in America.” He had also searched for “German Jewish Temples near me” and “Zionist Temples” in New Jersey and Staten Island. Thomas appeared unaffiliated with any major group but had written about Adolf Hitler and “Nazi culture” in his journals.*Michael Gold and Benjamin Weiser, “Suspect in Monsey Stabbings Searched Online for ‘Hitler,’ Charges Say,” New York Times, December 30, 2019,; Phil Helsel, “Suspect in Hanukkah machete attack at rabbi’s NY home not fit for trial, judge rules,” NBC News, April 21, 2020, .x

Download Full Report

Read Part I:

Historic professional, societal, and political restrictions on Jews helped give rise to some of the most enduring conspiracies about Jewish influence.

Read about Antisemitism throughout History

Daily Dose

Extremists: Their Words. Their Actions.


On May 8, 2019, Taliban insurgents detonated an explosive-laden vehicle and then broke into American NGO Counterpart International’s offices in Kabul. At least seven people were killed and 24 were injured.

View Archive