Also Known As:
The Taliban (Pashto for “students”) are the jihadist insurgent group operating in Afghanistan against the Western-backed government. The Taliban are the predominant umbrella group for the Afghan insurgency, including the semi-autonomous Haqqani network. (The Taliban’s offspring across the border, the Pakistani Taliban, share the ideology and objectives of its namesake but operate independently and focus on overthrowing the Pakistani government.) In 2014, the “core Taliban” were estimated to include over 60,000 fighters with varying degrees of loyalty.“Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll, No Drop in Insurgency,” Voice of America, March 6, 2014, http://www.voanews.com/content/despite-massive-taliban-death-toll-no-drop-in-insurgency/1866009.html. These forces have allowed the Taliban to remain a credible fighting force with the ability to win and hold territory. According to a U.N. report released in September 2015, the Taliban has reclaimed more territory in Afghanistan by this time than at any point since 2001, when the U.S.-led coalition invaded in response to the September 11 attacks.Rod Nordland and Joseph Goldstein, “Afghan Taliban’s Reach Is Widest Since 2001, U.N. Says,” CNBC, October 11, 2015, http://www.cnbc.com/2015/10/11/new-york-times-digital-afghan-talibanas-reach-is-widest-since-2001-un-says.html.
The Taliban were founded in 1994 by Mullah Mohammed Omar in Kandahar to impose a puritanical Islamic order on Afghanistan. The Taliban’s roots can be traced to the Pakistani-trained mujahideen who fought against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. The predominantly Pashtun tribesmen that comprised the Taliban quickly consolidated power by force throughout Afghanistan and, in 1996, seized control of the capital, Kabul. The “Emirate of Afghanistan,” as the Taliban refer to their domain, was born. With generous financial support from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, especially the latter’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, the Taliban enforced a strict code of sharia (Islamic law) and harbored al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations. The Taliban-run government in Afghanistan was recognized by only three countries: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
While the Taliban hosted al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden’s group ran training camps and planned and executed numerous terrorist attacks, including the multiple airplane hijackings and strikes against the United States on September 11, 2001. In the aftermath of 9/11, the Taliban rejected a U.S. ultimatum to turn over bin Laden and kick out al-Qaeda. In response, the U.S. and allied countries invaded Afghanistan and swiftly deposed the Taliban government.
Since being driven out of Kabul, the Taliban have operated as an insurgent force in both Afghanistan and Pakistan, attempting to expel NATO forces from Afghanistan and defeat the democratically-elected Afghan government. Attacks on Afghanistan’s security forces have increased as Western forces have begun to withdraw from the country in recent years. As government authority has weakened, Taliban forces have filled the vacuum. By December 2015, vast swathes of Helmand Province had fallen to the Taliban. U.S. Special Operations forces responded by taking aggressive steps to halt this advance.David Jolly and Taimoor Shahdec, “Afghan Province, Teetering to the Taliban, Draws In Extra U.S. Forces,” New York Times, December 13, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/14/world/asia/afghan-province-teetering-to-the-taliban-draws-in-extra-us-forces.html.
Meanwhile, the Taliban’s wing in Pakistan has repeatedly attacked the Pakistani government and the country’s civilians. Such attacks include the October 2012 shooting of 15-year-old education activist Malala Yousafzai as well as the December 2014 massacre at an army-run school in Peshawar, which killed 132 children. On January 20, 2016, the Taliban claimed responsibility for two attacks that together claimed over 20 lives: one targeting a university near Peshawar, and the other targeting a news crew in Kabul, Afghanistan. In August 2016, the Taliban forged a cease-fire with ISIS after more than a year of intense combat between the radical Islamist groups.Jessica Donati and Habib Khan Totakhil, “Taliban, Islamic State Forge Informal Alliance in Eastern Afghanistan,” Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/taliban-islamic-state-forge-informal-alliance-in-eastern-afghanistan-1470611849.
The Taliban are an Islamist movement that seeks to establish a caliphate under sharia. Islamists of this mold embrace Salafism, an austere and radical interpretation of Islam, holding that Muslims should emulate the actions of the first generation of Muslim leaders, who are known as the righteous. The Taliban repudiate more than a thousand years of Islamic jurisprudence and instead postulate the imposition of strict Islamic law.Michael Semple, Rhetoric, Ideology and Organizational Structure of the Taliban Movement (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2014), http://www.usip.org/publications/rhetoric-ideology-and-organizational-structure-of-the-taliban-movement. Under Taliban rule, a religious police force was officially established under the guise of “the Ministry for the Suppression of Vice and the Promotion of Virtue.”Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 90.
This fundamentalist ideology was evident in the name they adopted. They called themselves Taliban (students) and embraced the strict Deobandi interpretation of the faith.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 88. This school was a branch of Sunni Hanafi Islam that developed in the late nineteenth century in the madrassas (religious schools) of British India.“Deobandis,” Oxford Islamic Studies Online, accessed May 1, 2015, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e522?_hi=1&_pos=2. The Deobandis emphasized Islamic learning, and aimed to raise a new generation of pious Muslims who would learn the Quran as well as the lived experience of Islam’s prophet Muhammad. The Deobandis’ vision consigned women and Shiite Muslims to the margins of society, and flattened all forms of hierarchy in the ummah (community of believers).Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 88.
The Taliban’s fundamentalist ideology is overlaid with a strong Pashtun tribal affiliation. In addition to stoking rivalries between Afghanistan’s non-Pashtun ethnic groups, the Taliban’s tribal emphasis on being a good host dictated that it maintain good relations with al-Qaeda despite doctrinal disputes.Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 325. One of the fiercest disputes between the Taliban and al-Qaeda regarded the Saudi royal family, which simultaneously opposed al-Qaeda’s brand of radicalism while financing the madrassas (Muslim schools) in Pakistan that helped foster and maintain the Taliban’s influence.Emran Qureshi, “Taliban,” Oxford Islamic Studies Online, accessed May 8, 2015, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e08954.
After seizing power in Kabul in 1996, the Taliban announced its aims to impose order, disarm the Afghan population (especially rival ethnic groups), enforce sharia, and defend the Islamic character of the “Emirate of Afghanistan.”Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 22. The Taliban banned most sporting events and forms of entertainment, from poetry and music to kites. They closed all girls’ schools and prohibited women from appearing in public except under strict supervision by a male relative. Even when women were in their respective homes, the windows were painted black to prevent passersby from glimpsing women in their private quarters.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 90.
Since the rise of ISIS, the Taliban have emphasized preserving pan-Islamic unity. Following al-Qaeda’s example, the Taliban have advised ISIS to “avoid extremism” that risks splintering the violent Islamist movement across the broader Middle East.Greg Pollowitz, “The Taliban Warns ISIS of Being Too Extreme,” National Review, July 13, 2014, http://www.nationalreview.com/feed/382615/taliban-warns-isis-being-too-extreme-greg-pollowitz. Mullah Omar in particular reaffirmed the Taliban’s priority of establishing a unified Islamist movement to expel the “far enemy” (the Western powers). Omar referred to ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as a “fake caliph,” asserting, “Baghdadi just wanted to dominate what has so far been achieved by the real jihadists of Islam after three decades of jihad. A pledge of allegiance to him is ‘haram.’”“Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS ‘haram,’” Rudaw, April 13, 2015, http://rudaw.net/english/middleeast/130420151. Despite these warnings, hundreds of Taliban members have joined ISIS’s Pakistani branch.Mushtaq Yusufzai, “ISIS in Pakistan and Afghanistan: Taliban Fighters Sign up, Commanders Say,” NBC News, January 31, 2015, http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/isis-pakistan-afghanistan-taliban-fighters-sign-commanders-say-n296707.
The Taliban are led by Mullah Mawlawi Haibatullah Akhundzada.Mujib Mashal and Taimoor Shah, “Taliban’s New Leader, More Scholar Than Fighter, Is Slow to Impose Himself,” New York Times, July 11, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/world/asia/taliban-afghanistan-pakistan-mawlawi-haibatullah-akhundzada.html?ref=asia&smid=tw-nytimesworld&smtyp=cur. As the emir of the Taliban, Mullah Akhundzada is responsible for overseeing the courts and judges.Abubakar Siddique, “The Quetta Shura: Understanding the Afghan Taliban’s Leadership,” Terrorism Monitor 12, no. 4 (February 21, 2014), http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=42006&cHash=7af7678306a23ff6734f35e261b15b90#.VTVCgyHBzGc. He also oversees the eleven Taliban commissions, which deal with the military, politics, culture, economics, health, education, outreach and guidance, prisoners, non-governmental organizations, martyrs and disabled persons, and civilian casualties.“Fifth report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, submitted pursuant to resolution 2160 (2014) concerning the Taliban and other associated individuals and entities constituting a threat to the peace, stability and security of Afghanistan,” United Nations Security Council, December 11, 2014, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2014/888.
The group’s ruling council, called the Quetta Shura, is responsible for much of the Taliban’s operations in southern and western Afghanistan.Abubakar Siddique, “The Quetta Shura: Understanding the Afghan Taliban’s Leadership,” Terrorism Monitor 12, no. 4 (February 21, 2014), http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=42006&cHash=7af7678306a23ff6734f35e261b15b90#.VTVCgyHBzGc; Jeffrey A. Dressler, “Securing Helmand,” Institute for the Study of War, September 2009, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/SecuringHelmandPDF.pdf. The Shura consists of an estimated 23 to 46 members.Jeffrey A. Dressler, “Securing Helmand,” Institute for the Study of War, September 2009, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/SecuringHelmandPDF.pdf. It was founded in the winter of 2002, when Mullah Omar allegedly relocated the Taliban organization to Quetta, Pakistan, from where it still operates.Jeffrey A. Dressler, “Securing Helmand,” Institute for the Study of War, September 2009, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/SecuringHelmandPDF.pdf.
Below the reported emir sits the deputy emir, reported to be Sirajuddin Haqqani.Ahmad Murid Partaw, Foreign Policy Journal, July 15, 2016, http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2016/07/15/the-haqqanization-of-the-afghan-taliban/. The deputy emir oversees the leadership and consultative councils, responsible for determining the “political and military affairs of the Emirate,” according to the U.N.“Fifth report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, submitted pursuant to resolution 2160 (2014) concerning the Taliban and other associated individuals and entities constituting a threat to the peace, stability and security of Afghanistan,” United Nations Security Council, December 11, 2014, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2014/888. Below the councils sit the judges, who reportedly run courts inside Afghanistan at the supreme, provincial, and district levels.“Fifth report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, submitted pursuant to resolution 2160 (2014) concerning the Taliban and other associated individuals and entities constituting a threat to the peace, stability and security of Afghanistan,” United Nations Security Council, December 11, 2014, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2014/888.
According to a report by General Stanley McChrystal, former commander of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and U.S. forces in Afghanistan, the Quetta Shura reportedly appoints a simulated government structure for Afghanistan, assigning “shadow” governors to many Afghan provinces and reviewing the performance of each governor.Thomas Joscelyn, “The Taliban’s shadow government,” Long War Journal, September 24, 2009, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/09/the_talibans_shadow_government.php. In 2009, the Shura established a committee to receive complaints about the governors from Afghani locals. The Shura “[installs] ‘shari’a’ courts to deliver swift and enforced justice in contested and controlled areas. [It levies] taxes and [conscripts] fighters and laborers.” It claims “to provide security against a corrupt government, ISAF forces, criminality, and local power brokers [and] to protect Afghan and Muslim identity against foreign encroachment.”Thomas Joscelyn, “The Taliban’s shadow government,” Long War Journal, September 24, 2009, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/09/the_talibans_shadow_government.php.
According to a 2009 Institute for the Study of War report, “[the Quetta Shura continues] to refer to [itself] as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, despite being removed from power in 2001…the Taliban see themselves as the legitimate government of Afghanistan and aim to extend their control over the entirety of the country.”
While the Quetta Shura runs the Taliban’s insurgency in southern and western Afghanistan, a Taliban military commission in Peshawar, Pakistan reportedly directs the insurgency in Afghanistan’s north and east. The Peshawar military commission reportedly oversees a total of 20 provinces divided into six command zones, one of which falls under the Haqqani network’s purview.The Taliban,” Council on Foreign Relations, accessed April 13, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/taliban/p35985?cid=marketing_use-taliban_infoguide-012115#!/.
In its early years, the Taliban received substantial financial support from the governments of Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The Taliban has also generated much of its revenues from opium production.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 226. While both the Afghan and Pakistani Taliban accrue funds from narcotics, they also profit from foreign donations, illegal gem mining, lumber trade, kidnapping, and extortion.Eric Schmitt, “Many Sources Feed Taliban’s War Chest,” New York Times, October 18, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/19/world/asia/19taliban.html; Matthew Rosenberg, “Taliban Run Into Trouble on Battlefield, but Money Flows Just the Same,” New York Times, June 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/14/world/asia/for-the-taliban-modest-success-in-battle-but-opium-trade-and-illicit-businesses-boom.html.
The Taliban reportedly raked in record profits in 2013, with fighters earning so much that they have had no incentive to quit the insurgency.Matthew Rosenberg, “Taliban Run Into Trouble on Battlefield, but Money Flows Just the Same,” New York Times, June 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/14/world/asia/for-the-taliban-modest-success-in-battle-but-opium-trade-and-illicit-businesses-boom.html. In Pakistan, however, Tehrik e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) factions struggling for funds have turned to kidnapping “wealthy businessmen for ransom,” according to a 2014 U.N. report.Louis Charbonneau, “Taliban Changing from Religious Group to Criminal Enterprise: U.N.,” Reuters, June 13, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/14/us-afghanistan-taliban-un-idUSKBN0EP02920140614.
The Taliban use hawala, a trust-based financial transfer system that predates the time of the prophet Muhammad. U.S. officials suspect that the Taliban make monthly payments to their fighters and receive hefty donations through hawala.Matthew Green, “Special Report - Stalking the Taliban in Afghan Currency Markets,” Reuters, December 23, 2012, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/12/23/uk-afghanistan-hawala-idUKBRE8BM00320121223.
Opium and Cigarettes
In 2009, the U.S. special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan, Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, said opium production was not as great an income resource for the Taliban as previously thought. “In the past there was a kind of feeling that the [Taliban’s funds] came from drugs in Afghanistan. That is simply not true.”GlobalPost, “Who is funding the Afghan Taliban? You don’t want to know,” Reuters, August 13, 2009, http://blogs.reuters.com/global/2009/08/13/who-is-funding-the-afghan-taliban-you-dont-want-to-know/. Pakistan army spokesman General Athar Abbar disagreed with Holbrooke’s statement, saying, “The opium trade is still the backbone of [the TTP’s] funding.”Shahan Mufti, “Funding the Pakistani Taliban,” GlobalPost, May 30, 2010, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/taliban/funding-the-pakistani-taliban. In 2010, the Pakistani military estimated that the Pakistani Taliban pocketed an average of $200 million every year from Afghani poppy profits.Shahan Mufti, “Funding the Pakistani Taliban,” GlobalPost, May 30, 2010, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/taliban/funding-the-pakistani-taliban.
David Cohen, then U.S. Treasury Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence, said in 2009 that the Taliban profit from every step in opium production. According to Cohen, the Taliban extort “funds from those involved in the heroin trade by demanding ‘protection’ payments from poppy farmers, drug lab operators and the smugglers who transport the chemicals into, and the heroin out of, the country.”Eric Schmitt, “Many Sources Feed Taliban’s War Chest,” New York Times, October 18, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/19/world/asia/19taliban.html.
The TTP also reportedly control the Pakistani trade of counterfeit cigarettes, which may account for 20 percent of their funding. According to a private security analyst in Pakistan, “[the TTP] simply receive taxes on a regular basis from owners of illegal and legal cigarette factories and later for the safe passage they provide to the convoys.”Aamir Latif and Kate Willson, “The Taliban and Tobacco,” Center for Public Integrity, June 29, 2009, http://www.publicintegrity.org/2009/06/29/6340/taliban-and-tobacco.
Misappropriated foreign funds
Private Afghan security companies hired by the United States have reportedly paid off Taliban insurgents with “protection money,” according to the United Nations.Michelle Nichols, “Taliban Raked In $400 Million from Diverse Sources: U.N,” Reuters, September 11, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/11/us-afghanistan-un-taliban-idUSBRE88A13Y20120911. A 2010 NPR report claims that “resupply convoys navigating the hazardous Afghan highway system frequently have to hire security firms to protect them, and as often, these security firms pay off militias that control key stretches of road.”Peter Kenyon, “Exploring the Taliban’s Complex, Shadowy Finances,” National Public Radio, March 19, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124821049. In 2009, U.S. military officials in Kabul estimated that at least 10 percent of the Pentagon’s security contracts eventually end up in Taliban hands—amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars.Aram Roston, “How the US Funds the Taliban,” Nation, November 11, 2009, http://www.thenation.com/article/how-us-funds-taliban#. Reuters has reported that “many Afghans” support the Taliban’s accruement of foreign funds. According to one Kabul resident, “This is international money. They are not taking it from the people, they are taking it from their enemy.”GlobalPost, “Who is funding the Afghan Taliban? You don’t want to know,” Reuters, August 13, 2009, http://blogs.reuters.com/global/2009/08/13/who-is-funding-the-afghan-taliban-you-dont-want-to-know/.
The Taliban reportedly receive donations from oil-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.Peter Kenyon, “Exploring the Taliban’s Complex, Shadowy Finances,” National Public Radio, March 19, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124821049. According to a 2009 New York Times report, the Taliban collect funds from anonymous citizens in “Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran and some Persian Gulf nations.”Eric Schmitt, “Many Sources Feed Taliban’s War Chest,” New York Times, October 18, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/19/world/asia/19taliban.html. Haroun Mir of the Afghanistan Center for Research and Policy Studies said in 2010 that “our estimates are in Afghanistan that between $150 [million] to $200 million every year reaches directly to Taliban via this network of charities that exists in the Gulf countries.”Peter Kenyon, “Exploring the Taliban’s Complex, Shadowy Finances,” National Public Radio, March 19, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124821049.
Taliban insurgents have been known to practice forced conscription, taxing locals if they refuse to join. According to a displaced local in Lashkar Gah, Afghanistan, “Many people join the Taliban simply because they do not have any other option.”“AFGHANISTAN: Taliban Impose Rule, Hefty Taxes in Musa Qala District,” IRIN, accessed April 20, 2015, http://www.irinnews.org/report/72979/afghanistan-taliban-impose-rule-hefty-taxes-in-musa-qala-district; Luke Harding, “Taliban Forcing Thousands Into Army,” Guardian (London), October 3, 2001,http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/oct/04/afghanistan.lukeharding.
TPP insurgents reportedly offer protection to locals in exchange for high sums of money. If locals refuse the protection, the insurgents threaten to kill them. The extortion has become so commonplace in Karachi, Pakistan, that locals now call it the “terror tax.”Mariya Karimjee, “Pakistan’s ‘Terror Tax’,” GlobalPost, February 5, 2013, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/asia-pacific/pakistan/130204/pakistan-karachi-taliban-extortion-terror-tax.
In 2010, a GlobalPost report alleged that the TTP also imposed jizya (a sharia-mandated tax on non-Muslims living in Muslim lands) on the Sikh minority in areas under their control.Shahan Mufti, “Funding the Pakistani Taliban,” GlobalPost, May 30, 2010, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/taliban/funding-the-pakistani-taliban.
In 2005, a television camera crew captured the image of locals paying tax to Taliban insurgents in Swat, Pakistan. According to a 2010 GlobalPost report, “Wooden carts with mounds of cash were parked on the street sides as women were seen dropping their jewelry into bags for masked young men carrying AK47s.”Shahan Mufti, “Funding the Pakistani Taliban,” GlobalPost, May 30, 2010, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/taliban/funding-the-pakistani-taliban.
Most of the early Taliban were trained in the Deobandi or Saudi-funded Wahhabi madrassas of Pakistan.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 43. These were especially prevalent in Pakistani refugee camps near the Afghan border. Unsurprisingly, the Taliban initially preferred to build an army of faithful students rather than an army of mercenaries. This tradition has since continued, as madrassas on both sides of the Afghan-Pakistan border are the primary recruiting grounds for the Taliban.Owais Tahid, “Pakistani teen tells of his recruitment, training as suicide bomber,” Christian Science Monitor, June 16, 2011, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/taliban/funding-the-pakistani-taliban.
After the Taliban captured Kabul in 1996, they enforced conscription among able-bodied males. Most members of the Taliban are not paid regular salaries. Most of those in its ranks are fed and clothed, and given weapons and ammunition, but actual salaries go only to the upper echelons, the older and battle-hardened Taliban fighters.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 100. This threadbare practice was established to encourage a way of life that mirrored that of the prophet Muhammad. By receiving only the barest necessities, Taliban recruits would find it difficult to stray from Islam.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 43.
A 2014 estimate by VOA News gauged that the Taliban included 60,000 fighters.Akmal Dawi, “Despite Massive Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency,” VOA News, March 6, 2014, http://www.voanews.com/content/despite-massive-taliban-death-toll-no-drop-in-insurgency/1866009.html. In 2009, the U.S. government estimated that the Taliban’s size was roughly 25,000 fighters of varying allegiance.“US: Taliban Has Grown Fourfold,” Al Jazeera, October 2, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2009/10/20091091814483962.html. The quality of these recruits may have diminished over time. The Taliban has even resorted to luring children into their ranks with sweets and then training them to become suicide bombers.“Taliban recruit children with sweets, trains them into suicide bombers,” YNet News, July 21, 2013, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4407709,00.html.
The Taliban has earned a reputation for secrecy, and some analysts believe this has inhibited the group’s recruiting potential. With such an opaque governing structure, in addition to the brutality of their administration, the Taliban failed to engender popular confidence and support.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 94.
By 2004, U.S. and NATO intelligence officers had concluded that Pakistan’s ISI was running a full training program for the Afghan Taliban out of the Baluchistan province in Pakistan, which gave it access to funds and arms from the wider Arab world.Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 227.
In 2007, the Taliban released a field manual of its training methods and tactics.Isambard Wilkinson and Ashraf Ali, “How to Be a Jihadi: Taliban’s Training Secrets,” Daily Telegraph (London), August 16, 2007, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1560492/How-to-be-a-jihadi-Talibans-training-secrets.html. The manual runs 144 pages and documents ambush methods, bomb-making, and how to plot suicide missions, in addition to religious propaganda to embolden recruits. This seems to reflect the growing lethality of Taliban operations, including suicide bombings. The Taliban launched only six suicide attacks in 2004, but that number had risen to 141 attacks in 2006. The Taliban also began to incorporate IEDs that had been put to lethal use by al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI).Ahmed Rashid, Taliban (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 230.
- 1994: By 1994, the mujahideen have “carved [Kandahar, Afghanistan] and neighboring districts into criminal fiefs.” The Taliban emerge as a united force in Kandahar, Afghanistan, with Mullah Mohammed Omar as their leader. The group soon absorbs over 15,000 students and clerics from western Pakistan and begins implementing sharia. By the end of 1994, the Taliban have complete control over Kandahar and Helmand province, the center of opium cultivation. During this time, Pakistan’s intelligence bureau, the Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI), secretly funnel money to the Taliban.Steve Coll, “Looking for Mullah Omar,” New Yorker, January 23, 2012, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/01/23/looking-for-mullah-omar; Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 259; “The Taliban,” Council on Foreign Relations, accessed April 13, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/taliban/p35985?cid=marketing_use-taliban_infoguide-012115#!/.
- September 1996: Taliban fighters capture Kabul, driving out Ahmed Shah Massoud’s mujahideen forces and communist President Mohammad Najibullah. The Taliban murder Najibullah and his brother, hanging their bodies from traffic poles in Kabul. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan quickly recognize the Taliban-led government. The Taliban implement a hardline version of sharia based on Hanafi Islamic jurisprudence, implementing Islamic punishments such as public executions, amputations, and stonings. Men are required to grow beards and women must be completely covered by the burka. The Taliban ban all television, movies, and music, disallowing girls and women from attending school or working. One Taliban decree declares, “Women you should not step outside your residence. If women are going outside with fashionable, ornamental, tight and charming clothes to show themselves, they will be cursed by the Islamic Sharia and should never expect to go to heaven.” The Taliban also ban kite flying, dog racing, pork, satellite dishes, cinematography, televisions, alcohol, computers, statues, pictures, and “anything made from human hair,” among other seemingly random items.“Who are the Taliban?” BBC News, November 1, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-11451718; “The Taliban,” Council on Foreign Relations, accessed April 13, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/taliban/p35985?cid=marketing_use-taliban_infoguide-012115#!/; Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 261.
- August 1998: Taliban forces capture the city of Mazar in northwest Afghanistan, slaughtering 5,000 to 6,000 people. Human Rights Watch notes that during the seizure of the city, Taliban troops shoot at “anything that [moves],” specially targeting members of the Persian-speaking Shiite Hazara ethnic community. Among the dead are 10 Iranian diplomats and a journalist.“The Massacre in Mazar-I Sharif,” Human Rights Watch, November 1998, http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports98/afghan/Afrepor0.htm; Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 304.
- March 2001: Taliban fighters decimate two massive statues of Buddha in Bamiyan, Afghanistan, with anti-aircraft weapons and tanks, prompting an international outcry from the U.S., the EU, Russia, India, and Pakistan.Luke Harding, “Taliban blow apart 2,000 years of Buddhist history,” Guardian (London), March 3, 2001, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/mar/03/afghanistan.lukeharding; Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 381.
- September 11, 2001: Nineteen al-Qaeda operatives hijack U.S. commercial airliners and fly them into the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. A fourth hijacked airplane, whose target may have been the U.S. Capitol building, was brought down by passengers in rural Pennsylvania. Almost 3,000 civilians are killed and thousands injured in the worst ever attack on U.S. soil. The Taliban had knowingly harbored al-Qaeda operatives since 1996, enabling the terror group to plan the attack under its watch.“Timeline: Al-Qaeda,” BBC News, last modified August 7, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7546355.stm; “The Taliban,” Council on Foreign Relations, accessed April 13, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/taliban/p35985?cid=marketing_use-taliban_infoguide-012115#!/.
- April 2006: A neo-Taliban insurgency appears in Afghanistan with an uptick in suicide bombings and the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).“The Taliban,” Council on Foreign Relations, accessed April 13, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/taliban/p35985?cid=marketing_use-taliban_infoguide-012115#!/.
- May-June 2006: Amidst a period of Taliban violence, Afghan, Canadian, and British troops launch Operation Mountain Thrust. The operation seeks to degrade Taliban activity in southern and eastern Afghanistan.“Revived Taliban waging ‘full-blown insurgency,’” USA Today, last modified June 20, 2006, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-06-19-taliban-afghanistan-cover_x.htm.
- February 27, 2007: A Taliban suicide bomber blows up a checkpoint at Bagram Air Base while U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney is visiting, killing 20 and injuring 20 more. Cheney, who is unhurt, is the target of the attack.“Cheney unhurt in blast outside Afghan base,” CNN, February 27, 2007, http://web.archive.org/web/20070301092232/http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/02/27/cheney.afghanistan.ap/index.html.
- July 19, 2007: Taliban insurgents kidnap 23 South Korean missionaries in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. The Taliban kills two Korean hostages before the Taliban and the South Korean government reach a deal. The Taliban releases the remaining hostages in August. As part of the deal, the South Korean government promises to withdraw its 200 troops from Afghanistan by the end of 2007 and to disallow evangelical missionaries to travel to Afghanistan.Choe Sang-Hun, “Freed by Taliban, 19 South Korean Hostages Will Face Relief and Anger Back Home,” New York Times, September 2, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/02/world/asia/02hostage.html?_r=0; David Rohde, “Taliban Free Remaining Koreans,” New York Times, August 30, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/30/world/asia/30cnd-afghan.html.
- December 27, 2007: The Pakistani Islamist group Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariate-Mohammadi dispatches a suicide bomber to blow up an army convoy in Swat, Pakistan, killing five Pakistani soldiers and six civilians. The group claims responsibility for the attack “on behalf of the TTP.”Hassan Abbas, “A Profile of Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan,” CTC Sentinel, January 15, 2008, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/a-profile-of-tehrik-i-taliban-pakistan.
- February 2008: A Taliban suicide bomber kills over 80 and injures 50 when he detonates explosives at a dogfight near Kandahar. The attack is the deadliest in Afghanistan since 2001.Pamela Constable, “Suicide Bomber in Afghanistan Kills More Than 80 at Dogfighting Event,” Washington Post, February 18, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/17/AR2008021700233.html.
- July 7, 2008: A suicide bomber attacks the Indian embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan, killing 41 and injuring over 140. U.S. intelligence agencies conclude that the ISI helped plan the attack, a claim that Pakistan strongly denies.Bill Roggio, “41 killed in Kabul suicide strike at Indian embassy,” Long War Journal, July 7, 2008, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2008/07/41_killed_in_kabul_s.php; Mark Mazzetti and Eric Schmitt, “Pakistanis Aided Attack in Kabul, U.S. Officials Say,” New York Times, August 1, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/01/world/asia/01pstan.html; Mark Tran, “Pakistan denies claims of involvement in Kabul Indian embassy blast,” Guardian (London), August 1, 2008, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/aug/01/pakistan.usa.
- August 17-18, 2008: At least 10 Taliban suicide bombers attack the U.S. military base Camp Salerno in Bamiyan, Afghanistan. In a twin attack, approximately 100 Taliban insurgents attack and kill 10 elite French paratroopers in a district near Kabul. The New York Times reports that NATO and American military officers blame the increased Taliban insurgence on “the greater freedom of movement the militants have in Pakistan’s tribal areas on the Afghan border.”Carlotta Gall and Sangar Rahimi, “Taliban Escalate Fighting With Assault on U.S. Base,” New York Times, August 19, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/20/world/asia/20afghan.html?pagewanted=all.
- August 21, 2008: Simultaneous TTP suicide bombs explode at Pakistan’s main munitions factory northwest of Islamabad, killing at least 63 people. The TTP claims responsibility, stating that the bombings are in retaliation to army violence in the tribal area of Bajaur.“Pakistan bombers hit arms factory,” BBC News, August 21, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7574267.stm.
- March 31, 2009: In an interview with BBC News, TTP leader Baitullah Mehsud says his group was responsible for an attack on Lahore’s police academy the day prior. Mehsud says that the attack was “in retaliation for the continued drone strikes by the US in collaboration with Pakistan on our people.” The attack killed 10 and injured 95.“Lahore ‘was Pakistan Taleban op,’” BBC News, March 31, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7973540.stm.
- April 4, 2009: TTP leader Baitullah Mehsud claims responsibility for an attack on an immigration center in Binghamton, New York, in which 13 people are killed. Mehsud tells Reuters reporters, “I accept responsibility. They were my men. I gave them orders in reaction to U.S. drone attacks.”“Pakistani Taliban chief Mehsud claims U.S. shooting,” Reuters, April 4, 2009, http://in.reuters.com/article/2009/04/04/idINIndia-38880020090404.
- June 20, 2009: New York Times reporter David Rohde escapes from captivity after being held by the Taliban for over seven months, since his capture on November 10, 2008. Rohde’s family asserts that there was no ransom paid, or Taliban prisoners released, in exchange for Rohde’s release.“Times Reporter Escapes Taliban After 7 Months,” New York Times, June 20, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/21/world/asia/21taliban.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
- June 30, 2009: The Taliban takes U.S. soldier Private Bowe Bergdahl hostage. Days after his capture, a senior U.S. military official said that Bergdahl was captured by low-level insurgents and then “sold” to members of the Taliban-aligned Haqqani network. On July 18, 2009, the Taliban release a 28-minute video on the Internet in which Bergdahl says he is scared and wishes to return home. Taliban allege that Bergdahl was drunk and off base at the time of his capture, but U.S. officials refute that claim, stating, “The Taliban are known for lying and what they are claiming (is) not true.”“U.S. soldier captured by Taliban: ‘I’m afraid’,” CNN, July 19, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/07/19/afghanistan.soldier.hostage/; Declan Walsh, “Taliban release vide of captured US soldier,” Guardian (London), July 19, 2009, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/19/afghanistan-captured-american-soldier-video.
- May 2010: The TTP claim responsibility for a failed car bombing in New York City’s Times Square. TTP’s top bomb maker, Qari Hussain Mehsud, says that the attack “is a revenge for the great [and] valuable martyred leaders of mujahideen,” as well as a “revenge for the Global American interference [and] terrorism in Muslim countries.” Mehsud warns that NATO must condemn the United States and apologize for “the massacres in Iraq, Yemen, Afghanistan, and Pakistani tribal areas otherwise be prepared for the worst destruction and devastation in their regions.”Bill Roggio, “Pakistani Taliban claim credit for failed NYC Times Square car bombing,” Long War Journal, May 2, 2010, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/05/pakistani_taliban_cl.php.
- August 5, 2010: Taliban gunmen murder ten aid workers in Badakhshan, Afghanistan. The workers include six Americans, four Afghans, one Briton and, and one German. The Taliban claim that the aid workers were “spies and Christian missionaries.”Rod Nordland, “Gunmen Kill Medical Aid Workers in Afghanistan,” New York Times, August 7, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/08/world/asia/08afghan.html.
- February 10, 2011: A young suicide bomber attacks an army compound in Pakistan, killing at least 31. The TTP claim responsibility.“Pakistan attack: ‘Schoolboy’ suicide bomber hits Mardan,” BBC News, February 10, 2011, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12413469.
- April 3, 2011: Suicide bombers attack a Pakistani shrine of a 13th century Sufi saint, killing at least 41. The TTP claim responsibility.“41 killed in Pakistan shrine suicide attack,” Telegraph (London), April 3, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/pakistan/8424930/41-killed-in-Pakistan-shrine-suicide-attack.html.
- September 2011: Taliban suicide bombers attack the home of former Afghanistan president Burhanuddin Rabbani, killing him and four other members of Afghanistan’s High Peace Council. According to Michael Semple, a Taliban expert, Rabbani’s death constitutes “one of the biggest blows the peace process in Afghanistan has faced.” After Rabbani was ousted by the Taliban in 1996, Rabbani became head of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance, composed predominantly of Tajiks and Uzbeks. As an ethnic Tajik, Rabbani had been selected to lead the High Peace Council, a committee established to hold peace talks with the Taliban. In New York, Afghan President Hamid Karzai says, “This will not deter us from continuing down the path we have started.”“Former Afghanistan president Burhanuddin Rabbani killed in Kabul blast,” Telegraph (London), September 20, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/8776911/Former-Afghanistan-president-Burhanuddin-Rabbani-killed-in-Kabul-blast.html; Laura King, “Former Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani assassinated,” Los Angeles Times, September 20, 2011, http://articles.latimes.com/2011/sep/20/world/la-fg-afghanistan-rabbani-20110921.
- September 10, 2011: A Taliban suicide bomber detonates an IED at the entrance of the Combat Outpost Sayed Abab, an ISAF base in Wardak province, Afghanistan. The bomber kills four Afghans and wounds 77 U.S. soldiers in the attack.Bill Roggio, “Taliban suicide bomber hits combat outpost in Wardak,” Long War Journal, September 10, 2011, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2011/09/taliban_suicide_bomber_hits_co.php.
- September 13, 2011: Taliban gunmen strike the U.S. Embassy and NATO’s ISAF headquarters in Kabul, killing three police and one civilian. Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid tells CNN that the Taliban are targeting “the U.S. Embassy, governmental organizations and other foreign organizations.”Alissa J. Rubin, Ray Rivera and Jack Healy, “U.S. Embassy and NATO Headquarters Attacked in Kabul,” New York Times, September 13, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/14/world/asia/14afghanistan.html; Tim Schwarz and Joe Sterling, “In central Kabul, tension ripples amid Taliban assault,” CNN, September 14, 2011, http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/09/13/afghanistan.kabul.attack/. The next day, U.S. and Afghan officials say the Haqqani network is most likely behind the attack. According to the New York Times, “Hallmarks of attacks linked to the Haqqani network include multiple fighters, targets that are often symbols of the Afghan government and their Western backers, careful planning, and, often, instructions delivered by telephone as the attackers carry out their mission.”Jack Healy and Alissa J. Rubin, “U.S. Blames Pakistan-Based Group for Attack on Embassy in Kabul,” New York Times, September 14, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/15/world/asia/us-blames-kabul-assault-on-pakistan-based-group.html. Later in September, senior U.S. military officer Mike Mullen tells a Senate panel that the Haqqani network carried out the attack on the U.S. Embassy, saying, “With ISI support, Haqqani operatives planned and conducted… the assault on our embassy.” He continues, “The Haqqani network… acts as a veritable arms of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence Agency.”“Pakistan ‘backed Haqqani attack on Kabul’ - Mike Mullen,” BBC News, September 22, 2011, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-15024344.
- September 14, 2011: The TTP ambush a school bus in Peshawar, Pakistan, killing four boys and the driver, and wounding two seven-year-old girls.Lehaz Ali, “Bus attack kills four boys in Pakistan,” Sydney Morning Herald, September 14, 2011, http://www.smh.com.au//breaking-news-world/bus-attack-kills-four-boys-in-pakistan-20110914-1k84a.html.
- February 2012: After U.S. soldiers burn Qurans on February 22 at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan, violent protests erupt across the country. U.S. Military officials say that the Qurans contained extremist inscriptions that Taliban inmates used to communicate with one another and fuel extremism. During the riots, angry mobs scream “die, die, foreigners,” among other anti-Western chants.“Official: Burned Qurans held extremist messages,” CBS News, February 21, 2012, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/official-burned-qurans-held-extremist-messages/.
- April 2012: The Taliban launch a “spring offensive” in Afghanistan in which they attack the diplomatic quarter in Kabul. Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid tells Reuters, “These attacks are the beginning of the spring offensive and we [have] planned them for months.” He says that the primary targets are the German and British embassies and NATO headquarters. U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan Ryan Crocker says that the Haqqani network most likely helped the Taliban to carry out the attacks.Hamid Shalizi and Jack Kimball, “Taliban attack Afghanistan in ‘spring offensive,’” Reuters, April 15, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/15/us-afghanistan-attack-idUSBRE83E05620120415.
- August 16, 2012: TTP militants stop three buses in a remote mountain pass in northern Pakistan, and pull 22 Shiites off board, executing them all.Salman Masoon, “Pakistani Taliban Kill 22 Shiites in Bus Attack,” New York Times, August 16, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/17/world/asia/pakistani-taliban-kill-22-shiites-in-bus-attack.html?smid=pl-share.
- October 9, 2012: TTP insurgents shoot 14-year-old Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai in Mingora, Pakistan, as ‘punishment’ for promoting women’s education. Taliban spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan confirms that Yousafzai was the target, calling her activism for women’s education an “obscenity.”Declan Walsh, “Taliban Gun Down Girl Who Spoke Up For Rights,” New York Times, October 9, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/10/world/asia/teen-school-activist-malala-yousafzai-survives-hit-by-pakistani-taliban.html. Ehsan says, "[W]hom so ever leads a campaign against Islam and Shariah is ordered to be killed by Shariah." "Taliban use Islamic Shariah to defend Malala attack," Dawn (Karachi), October 10, 2012, http://www.dawn.com/news/755657/taliban-use-islamic-shariah-to-defend-malala-attack.
- September 15, 2013: Pakistani General Sanaullah Khan Niazi dies in a roadside bomb in northwest Pakistan. The TTP claim responsibility.Salman Masood, “Senior Pakistani General Is Killed in Insurgent Attack,” New York Times, September 15, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/16/world/asia/insurgent-attack-kills-senior-pakistani-general.html.
- January 2014: Taliban suicide bombers blow up a restaurant that is regularly visited by Westerners in Kabul’s diplomatic quarter, killing 21. Among the dead are four U.N. personnel.Azam Ahmed and Matthew Rosenberg, “Deadly Attack at Kabul Restaurant Hints at Changing Climate for Foreigners,” New York Times, January 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/19/world/asia/afghanistan-restaurant-attack.html; Matthew Rosenberg, “Taliban Attack Kills 16 at Restaurant Favored by Westerners,” New York Times, January 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/18/world/asia/Kabul-Cafe-Bombing.html.
- June 8, 2014: TTP militants attack the Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 26 people. The TTP later claim responsibility for the attack alongside the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), an Uzbekistan-based al-Qaeda-linked militant organization that works closely with the Taliban.“Karachi airport: Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan claims attack,” BBC News, June 11, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-27790892.
- December 2014: NPR lists 2014 as Afghanistan’s bloodiest year since 2001.Christopher Woolf, “2014 was the bloodiest year of the war in Afghanistan — for Afghans,” Public Radio International, February 3, 2015, http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-02-03/2014-was-bloodiest-year-war-afghanistan-afghans.
- December 16, 2014: Nine TTP gunmen attack an army-run school in Peshawar, Pakistan, killing 145, 132 of them schoolchildren. The gunmen run through the hallways of the school, throwing grenades, firing at random, and exploding suicide vests. The gunmen line up some of the children and slaughter them. The attack prompts an international outcry. It is the deadliest attack in TTP’s history.Declan Walsh, “Taliban Besiege Pakistan School, Leaving 145 Dead,” New York Times, December 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/17/world/asia/taliban-attack-pakistani-school.html.
- February 13, 2015: Taliban militants attack worshippers at a Shiite mosque in Peshawar, killing at least 20.“Pakistani Taliban attack Shia mosque in Peshawar,” BBC News, February 13, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-31451201.
- May 14, 2015: The Taliban attack a popular hotel in Kabul, killing 14, including an American.Joseph Goldstein, “Taliban Attack Kills 14, Including American, at Kabul Hotel,” New York Times, May 14, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/15/world/asia/taliban-gunman-kills-14-including-american-at-kabul-hotel.html.
- September 4, 2015: More than 300 girls are admitted to hospitals after exposure to gas attacks in their schools in Herat, Afghanistan. The Taliban are suspected. Vasudevan Sridharan, “Afghanistan: 300 schoolgirls hit by suspected Taliban poison gas attacks in Herat,” International Business Times, September 4, 2015, http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/afghanistan-300-schoolgirls-hit-by-suspected-taliban-poison-gas-attacks-herat-1518418.
- September 28, 2015: The Taliban take control of the northern Afghan city of Kunduz. It is the first major city (population: 300,000) to fall into Taliban hands since the group was forcibly deposed from Kabul in 2001. “Taliban tighten grip on Afghan city of Kunduz,” BBC News, September 30, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34398371.
- October 11-14, 2015: The Taliban storm two check points in the southern Helmand province, killing 29 Afghan border police officers.Morgan Chalfant, “Taliban Insurgents Execute 29 Afghan Border Officers,” Washington Free Beacon, October 14, 2015, http://freebeacon.com/national-security/taliban-insurgents-execute-29-afghan-border-officers.
- November 9, 2015: Rival Taliban factions battle in southern Afghanistan, leaving dozens dead.“Rival Taliban Factions Clash in Southern Afghanistan, Dozens Dead,” Voice of America, November 9, 2015, http://www.voanews.com/content/rival-taliban-factions-clash-in-southern-afghanistan-dozens-deads/3049965.html.
- December 8, 2015: The Taliban assault Kandahar International Airport, leaving more than 50 dead, including children.Ayaz Gul, “At Least 50 Dead in Taliban Attack on Key Afghanistan Airport,” VOA News, December 10, 2015, http://www.voanews.com/content/taliban-attack-key-afghanistan-airport/3096798.html.“Afghan Taliban kill dozens at Kandahar airport,” BBC News, December 9, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35043938;
Sayed Salahuddin, “More than 50 killed in Taliban attack,” Salt Lake Tribune, December 9, 2015, http://www.sltrib.com/home/3288558-155/more-than-50-killed-in-taliban.
- January 20, 2016: Taliban agents storm Bacha Khan University in northwestern Pakistan outside Peshawar, killing at least 22 people. In Kabul, a motorcycle-bound suicide bomber targets Tolo News, an Afghan news channel. The attack kills seven employees.Sophia Saifi, Ben Brumfield and Euan McKirdy, “At least 22 killed in attack on Bacha Khan University in Pakistan,” CNN, January 21, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/20/asia/pakistan-university-militant-attack/index.html;
“Seven Employees of Afghan News Channel Killed in Kabul Suicide Attack,” Vice News, January 20, 2016, https://news.vice.com/article/bomb-explodes-near-russian-embassy-in-kabul?utm_source=vicenewstwitter;
Reuters, “Taliban warns TV station staff not to promote immorality after attack,” Yahoo News, January 21, 2016, http://news.yahoo.com/taliban-warns-tv-station-staff-not-promote-immorality-134055132.html.
- March 7, 2016: A bomber associated with the Pakistani Taliban attacks the entrance to a judicial court in northwestern Pakistan, killing 11.Riaz Khan, “Taliban suicide bomber kills 11 outside Pakistani court,” Yahoo News, March 7, 2016, https://www.yahoo.com/news/police-suicide-blast-kills-7-outside-pakistani-court-074934872.html.
- March 28, 2016: The Afghan Taliban claims responsibility for firing three rockets at the country's parliament in Kabul.Fazul Rahim, “Taliban Fires Three Rockets at Afghan Parliament,” NBC News, March 28, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/taliban-fires-three-rockets-afgan-parliament-n546421;
“Taliban Bombing Kills at Least 20 Police in Kabul,” New York Times, February 1, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/02/world/asia/afghanistan-kabul-suicide-bombing-taliban.html.
- May 14, 2016: Taliban insurgents ambush Afghan police forces and cut off the main highway that links Kabul with northern Afghanistan.Rod Nordland, “Taliban Cut Off Afghan Highway Linking Kabul to Northern Gateways,” New York Times, May 14, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/15/world/asia/taliban-cut-off-afghan-highway-linking-kabul-to-northern-gateways.html.
- May 31, 2016:Taliban gunmen kill 10 passengers and kidnap 18 more. The victims were traveling on buses headed toward the Afghan city of Kunduz.Ehsanullah Amiri and Jessica Donati, “Taliban Gunmen Kill 10 Bus Passengers, Kidnap Dozens,” Wall Street Journal, May 31, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/taliban-attacks-buses-in-northern-afghanistan-1464701057.
- July 21, 2016: After clashing with Afghan government forces, Taliban insurgents overrun the remote northern district of Qala-e-Zal in Kunduz province.Ayaz Gul, “Taliban Insurgents Overrun Northern Afghan District,” VOA, July 21, 2016, http://www.voanews.com/content/taliban-insurgents-overurn-northern-afghan-district/3428843.html.
- August 1, 2016: A truck bomb explodes outside a hotel compound used by foreign service contractors in Kabul. The Afghan Taliban claims responsibility.Sayed Hassib, “Taliban claim Kabul bomb attack on compound used by foreigners,”
Reuters, August 1, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-blast-idUSKCN10B0WA.
- August 4, 2016: Taliban gunmen attack a convoy of foreign travelers as they travel through Herat province, wounding seven people.“British Tourists Attacked In Afghanistan,” Sky News, August 4, 2016, http://news.sky.com/story/british-tourists-attacked-in-afghanistan-10522398.
- August 8, 2016: A suicide bomber targets a mourning ceremony in Quetta, killing at least 70 people and wounding at least 120 others. Jamaat-ul-Ahrar, a faction of the Pakistani Taliban, claims responsibility for the attack.Aamir Iqbal, “Suicide blast claimed by Taliban faction in Pakistan claims at least 64 lives,” Washington Post, August 8, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/suicide-bomber-targets-pakistans-lawyers-kills-at-least-53/2016/08/08/cce19344-5d4d-11e6-8e45-477372e89d78_story.html;
“Quetta hospital bombing: Pakistan Taliban claim attack,” BBC News, August 8, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-37015640.
Designations by the U.S. Government:
|July 4, 1999: The White House designated the Taliban as a sponsor of terrorism under Executive Order (E.O.) 13129 on July 4, 1999.“Executive Order 13129 of July 4, 1999,” Federation of American Scientists, accessed April 9, 2015, http://fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo/eo-13129.htm.||July 2, 2002: The White House labeled the Taliban a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) on July 2, 2002.“Executive Order 13268 of July 2, 2002,” U.S. Government Publishing Office, July 3, 2002, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-07-03/pdf/02-16951.pdf.|
|July 2, 2002: The White House labeled Mohammed Omar (a.k.a. Emir al-Mumineen) a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) on July 2, 2002.“Executive Order 13268 of July 2, 2002,” U.S. Government Publishing Office, July 3, 2002, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-07-03/pdf/02-16951.pdf.|
|September 1, 2010: The U.S. Secretary of State designated Tahrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) as a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) on September 1, 2010.“Designations of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan and Two Senior Leaders,” U.S. Department of State, September 1, 2010, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/09/146545.htm.||September 1, 2010: The U.S. Department of the Treasury designated Tahrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) pursuant to Executive Order 134224 on September 1, 2010.“Recent OFAC Actions-September 1, 2010,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, September 1, 2010, http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/OFAC-Enforcement/Pages/20100901.shtml.aspx.|
|September 1, 2010: The U.S. State Department listed top TTP leaders Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali ur-Rehman as Specifically Designated Global Terrorists on September 1, 2010.“Designations of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan and Two Senior Leaders,” U.S. Department of State, September 1, 2010, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/09/146545.htm.||January 13, 2015: The U.S. State Department listed TTP leader Mualana Fazlullah as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist on January 13, 2015.“Terrorist Designations of Mualana Fazlullah,” U.S. Department of State, January 13, 2015, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2015/01/235901.htm.|
Designations by Foreign Governments and Organizations:
|July 5, 2011: Canada listed the Pakistani Taliban as a terrorist organization on July 5, 2011.“Currently Listed Entities,” Public Safety Canada, accessed April 16, 2015, http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx#2044.||May 27, 2002: The European Union implemented United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267 (1999), 1390 (2002) on May 27, 2002. The resolution imposed “certain specific restrictive measures directed against certain persons and entities associated with Usama bin Laden, the Al-Qaida network and the Taliban” and froze “funds and other financial resources in respect of the Taliban of Afghanistan.”“EU Terrorist Listing,” Berghof Foundation for Peace Support, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.berghof-foundation.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Publications/Other_Resources/RLM_EU_Terrorist_Listing.pdf. The E.U. implemented Council Decision 2011/486/CFSP, which put the following restrictions on the Taliban: embargo on arms and related materiel, ban on provision of certain services, freezing of funds and economic resources, restrictions on admission. “European Union Restrictive measures (sanctions) in force,” European Commission, accessed April 17, 2015, http://eeas.europa.eu/cfsp/sanctions/docs/measures_en.pdf.|
|October 12, 2006: Kazakhstan listed the Taliban as a terrorist organization on October 12, 2006. “Kazakhstan Updates List Of Banned Terrorist Groups,” Radio Free Europe, October 12, 2006, http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1071987.html.||October 17, 2002: New Zealand designated the Taliban as a terrorist organization on October 17, 2002 as part of the Terrorism Suppression Act of 2002.“Designated individuals and organisations,” New Zealand Police, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/designated-entities-10-02-2015.pdf.|
|February 14, 2003: Russia listed the Taliban as a terrorist organization on February 14, 2003. “Единый федеральный список организаций, в том числе иностранных и международных организаций, признанных в соответствии с законодательством Российской Федерации террористическими,” Федеральная служба безопасности Российской Федерации,” accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.fsb.ru/fsb/npd/terror.htm.||October 15, 1999 The U.N. Security Council passed resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011), also known as the “Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee” on October 15, 1999. The resolutions oversee “the implementation of sanctions measures imposed on Taliban-controlled Afghanistan for its support of Usama bin Laden.” The resolution has been amended and strengthened by the following resolutions: 1333 (2000), 1390 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1735 (2006), 1822 (2008), 1904 (2009), 2083 (2012) and resolution 2161 (2014).“Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities, GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE WORK OF THE COMMITTEE,” United Nations Security Council, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/information.shtml. The United Nations listed the Pakistani Taliban under the category, “Entities and other groups and undertakings associated with Al Qaida” on July 29, 2011.“Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities,” United Nations Security Council, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/entities_other_groups_undertakings_associated_with_Al-Qaida.shtml.|
|July 5, 2011: Canada listed the Pakistani Taliban as a terrorist organization on July 5, 2011.“Currently Listed Entities,” Public Safety Canada, accessed April 16, 2015, http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx#2045.||July 29, 2011: France designated the Pakistani Taliban as a terrorist organization on July 29, 2011. “Liste terroriste unique,” Ministère des Finances et des Comptes Public, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.tresor.economie.gouv.fr/5563_liste-terroriste-unique.|
|November 15, 2014: The United Arab Emirates listed the Pakistani Taliban as a terrorist organization on November 15, 2014.“UAE cabinet endorses new list of terrorist groups,” Kuwait News Agency (KUNA), November 15, 2014, https://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?id=2408700&Language=en.||January 2011: The United Kingdom listed the Pakistani Taliban as a terrorist organization in January 2011.“Proscribed Terrorist Organisations,” Home Office, accessed April 17, 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417888/Proscription-20150327.pdf.|
|October 15, 1999: The U.N. Security Council passed resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011), also known as the “Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee” on October 15, 1999. The resolutions oversee “the implementation of sanctions measures imposed on Taliban-controlled Afghanistan for its support of Usama bin Laden.” The resolution has been amended and strengthened by the following resolutions: 1333 (2000), 1390 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1735 (2006), 1822 (2008), 1904 (2009), 2083 (2012) and resolution 2161 (2014). The United Nations listed the Pakistani Taliban under the category, “Entities and other groups and undertakings associated with Al Qaida” on July 29, 2011.“Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities, GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE WORK OF THE COMMITTEE,” United Nations Security Council, accessed April 17, 2015 accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.fsb.ru/fsb/npd/terror.htm.|
Ties to Extremist Entities:
The Taliban provided a safe haven for al-Qaeda insurgents in Afghanistan prior to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks.Richard Barrett, Sajjan Gohel, Ronald E. Neumann and Nigel Inkster, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Nexus,” Council on Foreign Relations, November 25, 2009, http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/al-qaeda-taliban-nexus/p20838. In October 1996, Osama bin Laden met with Taliban leader Mullah Omar and pledged “unconditional support and financial backing” in exchange for protection from the Taliban.Simon Franzen, “Unity in Terrorism,” Institute for Middle Eastern Democracy, 2012, http://instmed.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Al-Qaeda-and-the-Taliban.pdf.
During this time, bin Laden established al-Qaeda’s 55th Arab Brigade to fight alongside the Taliban in Afghanistan.Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Connection,” Weekly Standard, July 4, 2011, http://www.weeklystandard.com/the-al-qaeda-taliban-connection/article/575548. Leaked memos from the U.S. military Joint Task Force Guantanamo describe the brigade as bin Laden’s “primary battle formation supporting Taliban objectives,” with bin Laden “participating closely in the command and control of the brigade.”Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Connection,” Weekly Standard, July 4, 2011, http://www.weeklystandard.com/the-al-qaeda-taliban-connection/article/575548.
Following the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001, al-Qaeda and the Taliban fled to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan, where both organizations began to regroup and retool.Richard Barrett, Sajjan Gohel, Ronald E. Neumann and Nigel Inkster, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Nexus,” Council on Foreign Relations, November 25, 2009, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-evolution-of-iran%E2%80%99s-special-groups-in-iraq. After the 55th Arab Brigade was destroyed by coalition forces in late 2001, bin Laden and al-Qaeda rebuilt the organization as the Lashkar al Zil, or “the Shadow Army,” recruiting from jihadist groups in Pakistan.Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Connection,” Weekly Standard, July 4, 2011, http://www.weeklystandard.com/the-al-qaeda-taliban-connection/article/575548.
Al-Qaeda maintained a close relationship with the Taliban following the U.S. invasion. A U.S. intelligence report acquired by Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn from Guantanamo Bay described “a newly-conceived ‘unification’ of Al Qaeda and Taliban forces within Afghanistan.”Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Connection,” Weekly Standard, July 4, 2011, http://www.weeklystandard.com/the-al-qaeda-taliban-connection/article/575548. The same report indicated that Mullah Omar and bin Laden “envisioned this new coalition” during a meeting in Pakistan in early spring 2003.Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Connection,” Weekly Standard, July 4, 2011, http://www.weeklystandard.com/the-al-qaeda-taliban-connection/article/575548.
Guantanamo detainee Haroon al Afghan reported an August 2006 meeting during which commanders of the Taliban and al-Qaeda “decided to increase terrorist operations in the Kapisa, Kunar, Laghman, and Nangarhar provinces, including suicide bombings, mines, and assassinations.”Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Connection,” Weekly Standard, July 4, 2011, http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/al-qaeda-taliban-nexus/p20838.
Despite the increasing number of drone attacks in the Pakistani tribal areas under the Obama administration, the death of bin Laden in 2011, and continued killing of many senior al-Qaeda leaders, the alliance between al-Qaeda and the Taliban is likely to endure.Simon Franzen, “Unity in Terrorism,” Institute for Middle Eastern Democracy, 2012, http://instmed.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Al-Qaeda-and-the-Taliban.pdf. Both organizations have proven they are adept at reforming their structure and tactics even while weakened and vulnerable.Simon Franzen, “Unity in Terrorism,” Institute for Middle Eastern Democracy, 2012, http://instmed.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Al-Qaeda-and-the-Taliban.pdf.
The Haqqani Network
Shortly after the Taliban assumed governance of Afghanistan in 1996, Jalaluddin Haqqani accepted an appointment as Minister of Tribal Affairs.Richard Barrett, Sajjan Gohel, Ronald E. Neumann and Nigel Inkster, “The al-Qaeda-Taliban Nexus,” Council on Foreign Relations, November 25, 2009, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-evolution-of-iran%E2%80%99s-special-groups-in-iraq. Ever since, the Haqqani Network has been “officially subsumed under the larger Taliban umbrella organization led by Mullah Omar,” although the Haqqanis “maintain distinct command and control, and lines of operations.”“Part 3: Through the eyes of the Taliban,” Asia Times Online, May 5, 2004, http://www.understandingwar.org/report/haqqani-network. In 2008, Haqqani stated that “all the Mujahideen wage Jihad under the leadership of the Ameer ul-Momineen Mullah Mohammed Omar Mujahid against the American invaders and their lackeys.”“Part 3: Through the eyes of the Taliban,” Asia Times Online, May 5, 2004, http://www.understandingwar.org/report/haqqani-network.
In September 2012, Haqqani’s son Sirajauddin declared, “We are one of the fronts of the Islamic Emirate… and we are proud of our pledge to its Emir [Mullah Omar] and we carry out its orders and all its regulations… and we obey completely in good deeds the Emir of the Believers Mullah Muhammad Omar.”Bill Roggio, “Haqqani Network is part of the Taliban- Siraj Haqqani,” Long War Journal, October 5, 2012, http://www.understandingwar.org/report/haqqani-network. The Taliban also released a statement on its website stating that there is “no separate entity or network in Afghanistan by the name of Haqqani” and that Jalaluddin Haqqani is “a member of the Leadership Council of Islamic Emirate and is a close, loyal and trusted associate” of Mullah Omar.Bill Roggio, “Haqqani Network is part of the Taliban- Siraj Haqqani,” Long War Journal, October 5, 2012, http://www.understandingwar.org/report/haqqani-network.
Ties to Other Entities:
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)
Throughout the 1990s, Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) provided support and training to Mullah Omar while he organized the Taliban in Kandahar.Bruce Riedel, “Pakistan, Taliban and the Afghan Quagmire,” Brookings Institution, August 24, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/08/26-pakistan-influence-over-afghan-taliban-riedel.
By 2001, Pakistan was providing the Taliban regime in Kabul with hundreds of military advisers, thousands of Pakistani Pashtuns to serve in the Taliban’s infantry, and Special Services Group commandoes to help fight the Northern Alliance.Bruce Riedel, “Pakistan, Taliban and the Afghan Quagmire,” Brookings Institution, August 24, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/08/26-pakistan-influence-over-afghan-taliban-riedel. The ISI also facilitated the alliance between Mullah Omar and Osama bin laden prior to 9/11.Bruce Riedel, “Pakistan, Taliban and the Afghan Quagmire,” Brookings Institution, August 24, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/08/26-pakistan-influence-over-afghan-taliban-riedel.
Although Pakistani officials deny supporting the Taliban after 9/11, a leaked 2006 report from a British Defense Ministry think tank concluded, “Pakistan (through the ISI) has been supporting terrorism and extremism--whether in London on 7/7 [the July 2005 attacks on London's transit system], or in Afghanistan, or Iraq.”Jayshree Bajoria and Eben Kaplan, “The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 4, 2011, http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/isi-terrorism-behind-accusations/p11644.
Similarly, a NATO study published in 2012 based on the interrogations of 4,000 captured Taliban, al-Qaeda, and other fighters in Afghanistan concluded that “ISI support was critical to the survival and revival of the Taliban after 2001 just as it was critical to its conquest of Afghanistan in the 1990s.”Bruce Riedel, “Pakistan, Taliban and the Afghan Quagmire,” Brookings Institution, August 24, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/08/26-pakistan-influence-over-afghan-taliban-riedel.
The NATO report also determined that the ISI is “thoroughly aware of Taliban activities and the whereabouts of all senior Taliban personnel.”Bruce Riedel, “Pakistan, Taliban and the Afghan Quagmire,” Brookings Institution, August 24, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/08/26-pakistan-influence-over-afghan-taliban-riedel. While he was alive, Mullah Omar was believed to be hiding in Quetta and Karachi under the protection of the ISI.Bruce Riedel, “Pakistan, Taliban and the Afghan Quagmire,” Brookings Institution, August 24, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/08/26-pakistan-influence-over-afghan-taliban-riedel.