Riduan Isamuddin a.k.a. Hambali

Riduan Isamuddin, better known as Hambali, is an internationally designated terrorist, former al-Qaeda operative, and leader of Jemaah Islamiyah (JI). Hambali, a citizen of Indonesia, is one of 17 high-value detainees at United States Naval Base Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.“The Guantánamo Docket: Hambali (Riduan Isamuddin),” New York Times, accessed February 1, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10019-hambali-riduan-isamuddin-/documents/5. Hambali is suspected of playing a key role in a number of terrorist attacks in Indonesia, including JI’s first major terrorist operation in December 2000, which targeted 28 churches in Jakarta, Sumatra, and Java. He was also linked to the 9/11 attacks in the United States, according to the U.N. Security Council.“Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin; “Jemaah Islamiyah,” United Nations Security Council, April 17, 2018,  https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/entity/jemaah-islamiyah. Hambali was also believed to be responsible for laundering money used to finance al-Qaeda terrorist plots, including the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the failed 1995 Bojinka plot.Aurel Croissant and Daniel Barlow, “Government Responses in Southeast Asia,” Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective (Stanford: Stanford UP), p. 212, http://www.sup.org/books/title/?id=10507. In January 2017, the U.S. Defense Department charged Hambali and two associates—Malaysian nationals Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep, a.k.a. Lillie, and Mohd Farik Bin Amin, a.k.a. Zubair—with planning and facilitating the October 2002 Bali attack and the August 2003 JW Marriott Hotel attack in Jakarta.Carol Rosenberg, “U.S. charges Hambali at Guantánamo with Bali, Jakarta terrorist bombings,” Miami Herald, June 23, 2017, https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/guantanamo/article157887649.html.

Hambali was born and educated in Indonesia. In 1985, he moved to Malaysia to pursue work and married a local woman. He was exposed to Islamist extremist teachings of various clerics and came under the mentorship of exiled Indonesian cleric Abdullah Sungkar, who would go on to co-found JI. Sungkar facilitated Hambali’s travel to Afghanistan in 1986, in order to train at Rasul Sayyaf’s Sada camp and fight against the Soviets.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch5.pdf; “The Guantánamo Docket: Hambali (Riduan Isamuddin): JTF-GTMO Assessment,” New York Times, October 30, 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10019-hambali-riduan-isamuddin-/documents/11. According to the U.N. Security Council, Hambali fought alongside and made contact with several al-Qaeda leaders, including Osama bin Laden and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM).“Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin. Hambali returned to Malaysia in 1988, reuniting with Sungkar and strengthening his association with other extremists such as Islamist cleric and JI co-founder Abu Bakar Bashir. By his own account, Hambali traveled throughout Southeast Asia during this time, promoting militant extremism.“Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin; “The Guantánamo Docket: Hambali (Riduan Isamuddin): JTF-GTMO Assessment,” New York Times, October 30, 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10019-hambali-riduan-isamuddin-/documents/11.

In January 1993, while still exiled in Malaysia, Sungkar and Bashir formally established JI with the goal of creating an Islamic state under sharia across much of Southeast Asia. JI was heavily influenced by bin Laden and al-Qaeda. Founding members of both JI and al-Qaeda had similarly trained or fought in Pakistan and Afghanistan during the late 1980s and early 1990s.“Jemaah Islamiyah,” United Nations Security Council, April 17, 2018,  https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/entity/jemaah-islamiyah. During the 1990s, Hambali traveled across Southeast Asia to develop relationships between JI and other Islamist groups, including in the Philippines.“The Guantánamo Docket: Hambali (Riduan Isamuddin): JTF-GTMO Assessment,” New York Times, accessed February 1, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10019-hambali-riduan-isamuddin-/documents/11. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, Hambali assumed responsibility for the Singapore-Malaysia region of the newly-formed terrorist organization JI in 1998.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch5.pdf. As detailed in the ideological and tactical manual General Guidelines of the Struggle of Al Jemā‘ah Al Islāmiyah (PUPJI), JI was separated into four mantiqi, or areas of operation. Hambali supervised the Singapore-Malaysia mantiqi until his arrest in 2003. Under his tutelage, the mantiqi adopted a wider anti-Western agenda similar to al-Qaeda. From 2000 to 2001, Hambali chaired a five-member body within JI, known as the Regional Advisory Council.Bruce Vaughn, Emma Chanlett-Avery et al, “Terrorism in Southeast Asia,” Congressional Research Service, October 16, 2009, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

In June 1994, Hambali and his business partner Wali Khan Amin Shah established the Konsojaya trading company in Malaysia, which had a central role in terrorist activities. On December 1, a bomb exploded on board a Philippine Airlines jet traveling to Tokyo, killing a Japanese businessman and forcing the plane to land in Okinawa. Trial testimony revealed that Shah facilitated funding for the attack through Konsojaya. U.S. court records also later revealed that the December 1994 bombing was a preliminary step for a larger terrorist attack on multiple American airliners.Mark Fineman and Richard C. Paddock, “Indonesia Cleric Tied to ’95 Anti-U.S. Plot,” Los Angeles Times, February 7, 2020, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2002-feb-07-mn-26735-story.html; Nancy Reckler, “MAN ARRESTED IN MALAYSIA CHARGED IN N.Y. WITH PLOT TO BOMB U.S. AIRLINERS,” Washington Post, December 14, 1995, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/12/14/man-arrested-in-malaysia-charged-in-ny-with-plot-to-bomb-us-airliners/99131df9-3061-45c6-92fe-a518876a2acb/.

Malaysian and Philippine officials believe that Hambali’s Konsojaya trading company served as a financial conduit for the Bojinka plot, which was masterminded by Ramzi Yousef, the perpetrator of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and KSM. The Bojinka plot involved bombing 12 passenger planes that were departing cities throughout Asia and bound for the west coast of the United States. The plan ultimately failed in January 1995, when Philippine police responded to an accidental fire at Yousef’s apartment in Manila. The attacks would have killed as many as 4,000 Americans in a 48-hour period, according to U.S. prosecutors. The planners used Konsojaya’s palm oil exporting business as a cover to move funds into the Philippines, where Yousef was preparing for attacks.Mark Fineman and Richard C. Paddock, “Indonesia Cleric Tied to ’95 Anti-U.S. Plot,” Los Angeles Times, February 7, 2020, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2002-feb-07-mn-26735-story.html; Leslie Lopez and Jay Solomon, “Indonesian Cleric Becomes Focus of Terror Manhunt,” Wall Street Journal, February 1, 2002, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1012510692916145560. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, it is with this plot that KSM conceived of using aircraft as weapons.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch5.pdf.

In the late 1990s, Hambali met with KSM to arrange for JI members to attend al-Qaeda’s training camps in Afghanistan, according to the U.N. Security Council.“Jemaah Islamiyah,” United Nations Security Council, April 17, 2018,  https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/entity/jemaah-islamiyah. Hambali continued to work closely with KSM as well as with bin Laden’s chief of operations, Mohammed Atef. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, Hambali became the key coordinator of JI’s relationship with al-Qaeda and facilitated the global terror network’s financial and logistical support of JI’s terrorist activities in Indonesia, which expanded to include plots against American targets.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch5.pdf. In addition to coordinating JI and al-Qaeda-linked terrorist activities in Southeast Asia, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Combatant Status Review Tribunal claimed Hambali was the leader of the Malaysia Mujahedin Movement, which sought to overthrow the Malaysian government.“The Guantánamo Docket: Hambali (Riduan Isamuddin): Combatant Status Review Tribunals Summaries,” New York Times, March 28, 2007 https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10019-hambali-riduan-isamuddin-/documents/5. Hambali also stands accused of establishing a foreign student organization in Pakistan called al Ghuraba, which served as a front for a JI recruitment cell, according to the government of Singapore.Ellen Nakashima, “11 Men With Suspected Ties to Al Qaeda Arrested in Southeast Asia,” Washington Post, December 19, 2003, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2003/12/19/11-men-with-suspected-ties-to-al-qaeda-arrested-in-southeast-asia/1ef50520-f90e-4e97-975b-f05d973d2144/.

The 9/11 Commission alleged that between December 1999 and January 2000, at KSM’s direction, Hambali harbored and aided several al-Qaeda members who would go on to conduct attacks. These individuals included Tawfiq bin Attash, who helped bomb the USS Cole in October 2000, as well as future 9/11 hijackers Nawaf al Hazmi and Khalid al Mihdhar. In the late 2000s, Hambali also allegedly provided lodging and other assistance—including flight school information and help in acquiring ammonium nitrate—to Zacarias Moussaoui, convicted al-Qaeda member and would-be 20th hijacker in 9/11.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch5.pdf.

Hambali was also allegedly involved in several JI-linked terrorist incidents in Southeast Asia in 2000. On August 1, JI militants bombed the residence of the Philippine ambassador to Indonesia, leaving two people dead and the ambassador seriously injured. Another JI member told Philippine investigators that Hambali was involved.“Jemaah Islamiyah,” United Nations Security Council, April 17, 2018,  https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/entity/jemaah-islamiyah;  “Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin. On December 24, JI launched its first major terrorist operation, simultaneously bombing 28 churches in the Indonesian cities of Jakarta, Sumatra, and Java, killing 19 people and wounding more than 120 others. Indonesian police discovered documents implicating Hambali in the attack.David Gordon and Samuel Lindo, “Jemaah Islamiyah,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, November 2011, http://csis.org/files/publication/111101_Gordon_JemaahIslamiyah_WEB.pdf; “Statement by the Treasury Department Regarding Today’s Designation of Two Leaders of Jemaah Islamiyah,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, January 24, 2003, https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/kd3796.aspx. The U.N. Security Council alleged that Hambali was also involved in planning a series of bombings in Manila, Philippines, which killed at least 22 people and injured more than 100 on December 30.“Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin. And in December 2001, Singaporean authorities discovered a JI plot to attack Western diplomatic and commercial targets in the city-state. The U.S. Treasury Department later accused Hambali of directing the foiled plot.Chun Han Wong, “Singapore Detains Suspected Militants,” Wall Street Journal, October 12, 2012, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390444799904578052054207677748; “Statement by the Treasury Department Regarding Today’s Designation of Two Leaders of Jemaah Islamiyah,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, January 24, 2003, https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/kd3796.aspx.

Bin Lep and Bin Amin claimed that after the October 2001 bombing of al-Farouq camp in Afghanistan, Hambali recruited them and two other jihadists, known as Afifi and Masran, to take part in a martyrdom operation.“The Guantánamo Docket: Zubair (Mohd Farik Bin Amin): JTF-GTMO Assessment,” New York Times, September 23, 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10021-zubair-mohd-farik-bin-amin-/documents/11; “The Guantánamo Docket: Lillie (Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep): JTF-GTMO Assessment,” New York Times, October 13, 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10022-lillie-mohammed-nazir-bin-lep-/documents/11. According to U.S. charges, Hambali had chosen the four, Malaysian nationals who pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden, to travel to the United States and launch a post-9/11 suicide bombing attack, likely in California.Carol Rosenberg, “U.S. charges Hambali at Guantánamo with Bali, Jakarta terrorist bombings,” Miami Herald, June 23, 2017, https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/guantanamo/article157887649.html; Carol Rosenberg, “Judge Postpones Guantánamo Court Appearances, Citing Pandemic,” New York Times, February 2, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/02/us/politics/guantanamo-coronavirus-hambali.html. The so-called “West Coast Airliner Plot” was devised by KSM as a “second wave” to follow the 9/11 attacks. Hambali and the other planners reportedly believed that the Malaysian jihadists would have an easier time entering the United States than Arabs in the wake of 9/11. However, the plot ultimately failed.Patrick Winn, “Osama bin Laden's Asian disciples,” The World, May 2, 2011, https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-05-02/osama-bin-ladens-asian-disciples.

In January 2002, Hambali reportedly convened a meeting of JI operatives in southern Thailand to discuss a new strategy of attacking “softer” targets, such as bars and nightclubs. The U.S. Defense Department alleges that Hambali facilitated the transfer of money to fund these types of attacks, was in contact with JI operatives who were suspected of fabricating explosives, and had knowledge of an imminent bombing.“Notification of Swearing of Charges in United States v. Encep Nurjaman,” U.S. Department of Defense, April 5, 2019, https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/751-2019HambaliCharges/e58e1aaf3f8134ef2fa8/optimized/full.pdf. On October 12, 2002, in an attack attributed to JI, two bombs exploded at Paddy’s Irish Bar and the Sari Club on the Indonesian tourist island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring 209 others.Bruce Vaughn, Emma Chanlett-Avery et al, “Terrorism in Southeast Asia,” Congressional Research Service, October 16, 2009, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf; “The 12 October 2002 Bali bombing plot,” BBC News, October 11, 2012, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-19881138. Between December 2002 and January 2003, Hambali allegedly facilitated the receipt of approximately $99,900 in al-Qaeda funds for use in a JI operation and ordered Bin Lep and Bin Amin to store the money at their apartment in Bangkok. In the spring of 2003, Hambali directed Bin Lep and Bin Amin to deliver the money to Indonesia and the Philippines, according to the U.S. charge sheet.“Notification of Swearing of Charges in United States v. Encep Nurjaman,” U.S. Department of Defense, April 5, 2019, https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/751-2019HambaliCharges/e58e1aaf3f8134ef2fa8/optimized/full.pdf. On August 5, 2003, JI operatives bombed the JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, killing 12 people and wounding 150 others. According to U.S. government documents, the perpetrators targeted the hotel believing there would be a large American presence.“Bali bombing: Guantánamo inmate Hambali charged over 2002 attack,” Guardian, June 23, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/24/bali-bombing-guantanamo-inmate-hambali-charged-over-2002-attack. The United States alleges that Hambali “planned, aided and abetted in a course of conduct that resulted” in the 2002 Bali bombings, as well as the August 2003 JW Marriott Hotel bombing.“DOD Announces Charges Referred Against Guantanamo Detainees Encep Nurjaman, Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep, and Mohammed Farik Bin Amin,” U.S. Department of Defense, January 21, 2021, https://www.defense.gov/Newsroom/Advisories/Advisory/Article/2479146/dod-announces-charges-referred-against-guantanamo-detainees-encep-nurjaman-moha/.

Hambali was wanted by authorities in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia for suspected involvement in foiled plots and terrorist attacks.“Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin. On August 14, 2003, a joint U.S.-Thai operation captured Hambali in Thailand along with two accomplices—Malaysian nationals Bin Lep and Bin Amin. The three suspects were transferred to Guantánamo in September 2006 after three years in C.I.A. custody.“The Guantánamo Docket: Hambali (Riduan Isamuddin): JTF-GTMO Assessment,” New York Times, October 30, 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/guantanamo/detainees/10019-hambali-riduan-isamuddin-/documents/11; Carol Rosenberg, “Judge Postpones Guantánamo Court Appearances, Citing Pandemic,” New York Times, February 2, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/02/us/politics/guantanamo-coronavirus-hambali.html.

In June 2017, a U.S. war court prosecutor officially charged Hambali with directing the 2002 Bali bombings and the 2003 attack on the JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta. Hambali’s charges included “terrorism, murder in violation of the law of war, attempted murder, intentionally causing serious bodily injury, attack civilians and civilian objects and destruction of property, in violation of the law of war.” The charges also alleged that Hambali directed Bin Lep, Bin Amin, and two other Malaysian nationals to meet with Osama bin Laden in Kabul, Afghanistan, after the 9/11 attacks. Hambali had also allegedly selected four Malaysians to carry out a post-9/11 suicide bombing somewhere in the United States, possibly California.Carol Rosenberg, “U.S. charges Hambali at Guantánamo with Bali, Jakarta terrorist bombings,” Miami Herald, June 23, 2017, https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/guantanamo/article157887649.html.

The case of United States v. Encep Nurjaman (Hambali), Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep, and Mohammed Farik Bin Amin was finally approved for trial on January 21, 2021, when the U.S. Defense Department announced that the Convening Authority, Office of Military Commissions, referred charges to a military commission.“DOD Announces Charges Referred Against Guantanamo Detainees Encep Nurjaman, Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep, and Mohammed Farik Bin Amin,” U.S. Department of Defense, January 21, 2021, https://www.defense.gov/Newsroom/Advisories/Advisory/Article/2479146/dod-announces-charges-referred-against-guantanamo-detainees-encep-nurjaman-moha/. It was the first new case at Guantánamo Bay since 2014. Prosecutors are not permitted to seek the death penalty and it is possible for the suspects to negotiate toward a guilty plea and serve their sentences elsewhere.Carol Rosenberg, “Pentagon Official Approves Guantánamo Trial of 3 Men for Indonesia Bombings,” New York Times, January 21, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/21/us/politics/guantanamo-trial-indonesia-bombings.html.

On February 1, 2021, a military judge postponed the arraignment of Hambali and two of his accused accomplishes at Guantánamo. The three were scheduled to make their first court appearance after 17 years in detention on February 22, 2021. However, the judge said the risk to the health and safety of trial participants due to the COVID-19 pandemic was too high to proceed.“Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin,” United Nations Security Council, March 28, 2011, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/nurjaman-riduan-isamuddin; Carol Rosenberg, “Judge Postpones Guantánamo Court Appearances, Citing Pandemic,” New York Times, February 2, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/02/us/politics/guantanamo-coronavirus-hambali.html. The three men are scheduled to be arraigned on August 30, 2021.“Military Commissions Media Invitation Announced for United States v. Encep Nurjaman; Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep; Mohammed Farik Bin Amin, Arraignment,” U.S. Department of Defense, June 28, 2021, https://www.defense.gov/Newsroom/Advisories/Advisory/Article/2673035/military-commissions-media-invitation-announced-for-united-states-v-encep-nurja/source/GovDelivery/; “Amended Arraignment Order,” U.S. Department of Defense Office of Military Commissions, April 16, 2021, https://www.mc.mil/Portals/0/pdfs/Nurjaman/Nurjaman%20(AE0002.008(TJ)(CorrectedCopy)).pdf.

Also Known As

Extremist entity
Al-Qaeda
Type(s) of Organization:
Non-state actor, religious, terrorist, transnational, violent
Ideologies and Affiliations:
Jihadist, pan-Islamist, Qutbist, Salafist, Sunni, takfiri
Position(s):
Coordinator in Southeast Asia

Al-Qaeda’s 9/11 attacks was the deadliest ever on American soil, killing nearly 3,000 people. Since the fall of the Taliban, al-Qaeda has established operations worldwide, including in Syria, the Gulf, North Africa, West Africa, East Africa, and the Indian subcontinent.

Extremist entity
Jemaah Islamiyah (JI)
Type(s) of Organization:
Insurgent, non-state actor, religious, terrorist, transnational, violent
Ideologies and Affiliations:
Islamist, jihadist, Qutbist, Salafist, Sunni, takfiri
Position(s):
Operations chief, regional leader

Al-Qaeda’s 9/11 attacks was the deadliest ever on American soil, killing nearly 3,000 people. Since the fall of the Taliban, al-Qaeda has established operations worldwide, including in Syria, the Gulf, North Africa, West Africa, East Africa, and the Indian subcontinent.

  • Designations

United States

  • The U.S. Department of the Treasury designated “Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin” under Executive Order 13224 On January 24, 2003.“Statement by the Treasury Department Regarding Today’s Designation of Two Leaders of Jemaah Islamiyah,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, January 24, 2003, https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/kd3796.aspx.

    The U.S. Department of State designated “Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin” as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) on January 24, 2003.“Treasury Designates Four Leaders of Terrorist Group – Jemaah Islamiyah,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, April 13, 2006, https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/js4179.aspx.

United Nations

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