Overview

Executive Summary:

Germany’s National Democratic Party (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands or NPD) is a far-right political party that advocates racist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Muslim views. According to the German intelligence service, the NPD rejects the concept of liberal democracy.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesministerium des Innern, accessed April 1, 2019 https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/downloads/DE/publikationen/themen/sicherheit/vsb-2013.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=1. The NPD is hostile towards both the United States and Israel. The party is opposed to multiculturalism and is concerned about the “foreign infiltration” (Überfremdung) of Germany, namely the perceived Americanization and Islamization of German society.Torsten Oppelland, “Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands,” Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, June 5, 2017, http://www.bpb.de/politik/grundfragen/parteien-in-deutschland/kleinparteien/42205/npd. The NPD considers the presence of immigrants in Germany—regardless of whether they hold German citizenship—to be an attack on the German ethnic community (Volksgemeinschaft) and advocates deporting immigrants to their respective countries of origin.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, 95, accessed November 29, 2014, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013-kurzzusammenfassung.pdf.

The NPD was founded in 1964. Despite some initial popularity among voters during the 1960s, the party was not able to sustain its success and became a marginalized political force for the subsequent three decades, during which time the group experienced financial difficulties and a steep decline in membership. Following German reunification in 1990, the NPD grew its support base in many of the regions of former East Germany, entering several state parliaments in the late-1990s.  During this time, the NPD strategically repositioned itself by opening the party up to neo-Nazis and becoming more overtly radicalized.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, accessed November 29, 2014, 100-101, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf. According to 2017 statistics from Germany’s domestic intelligence service (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz or BfV), the NPD has a membership of 4,500 people.“Right-wing Extremist Membership (Overall View)”, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV), accessed December 15, 2016, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/en/fields-of-work/right-wing-extremism/figures-and-facts-right-wing-extremism/right-wing-extremist-following-2015.

According to the German intelligence service, the NPD opposes liberal democracy and appears to support an authoritarian state. Though the NPD officially rejects violence, racist gangs have reportedly carried out violence on behalf of the group.Madeline Chambers, “German treads cautiously in court case to ban far-right party,” Reuters, August 18, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-npd-insight-idUSKCN10T14W. The NPD claims to pursue change through Germany’s democratic process but ultimately, according to the German Interior Ministry, the party’s intention is to systematically combat Germany’s democratic constitutional state.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesministerium des Innern, 101, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf. Although German authorities have charged the NPD with violating constitutional bans on Nazi symbols and propaganda, several attempts to ban the party have failed.“Germany’s highest court to rule on nationalist NPD party ban,” Deutsche Welle, November 11, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/germanys-highest-court-to-rule-on-nationalist-npd-party-ban/a-36252425.

German authorities attempted to ban the NPD first in 2003, following a perceived rise in far-right crimes. The investigation collapsed, however, after it was revealed that many key party members were undercover law enforcement officers or paid informants.“Germany’s highest court to rule on nationalist NPD party ban,” Deutsche Welle, November 11, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/germanys-highest-court-to-rule-on-nationalist-npd-party-ban/a-36252425. Following the discovery of the neo-Nazi terrorist cell National Socialist Underground (Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund or NSU), which reportedly murdered at least 10 people (mostly of Turkish origin) between 2000 and 2007, the German Federal Council (Bundesrat), a legislative body representing Germany’s 16 states, made a second attempt to ban the party in 2013.“Germany’s top court rules against ban on far-right NDP,” Guardian, January 17, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/17/germany-s-top-court-rules-against-ban-on-far-right-ndp; Ben Knight “A guide to Germany’s farright groups,” Deutsche Welle, June 17, 2017, http://www.dw.com/en/a-guide-to-germanys-far-right-groups/a-39124629.

The German Federal Council renewed their bid to make the party unconstitutional in March 2016, amidst a surge in anti-migrant rhetoric from the NPD and its followers, and a rise in far-right violence. In an unprecedented move, Germany’s top constitutional court opened a hearing into banning the group. On January 17, 2017, the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) rejected the proposed ban on the NPD. The court noted that the NPD resembles the Nazi party and its objectives were unconstitutional, but ruled that the NPD did not have enough political weight to pose any actual threat to Germany’s democratic system.“Germany’s top court rules against ban on far-right NDP,” Guardian, January 17, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/17/germany-s-top-court-rules-against-ban-on-far-right-ndp; Ben Knight “A guide to Germany’s far-right groups,” Deutsche Welle, June 17, 2017, http://www.dw.com/en/a-guide-to-germanys-far-right-groups/a-39124629. The NPD criticized the ruling but did not alter its ideological positions and, instead, reaffirmed its nationalist beliefs.“Brief summary, 2017 Report on the Protection of the Constitution, Facts and Trends,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, accessed April 1, 2019, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/annual-report-2017-summary.pdf.

However, in June 2017, the German government passed legislation to deny federal funding to any political party with aims hostile to the German constitution in a move specifically intended to target the NPD and incapacitate it by other legal means.Jefferson Chase, “Bundestag cancels German government funding of non-democratic parties,” Deutsche Welle, June 22, 2017, http://www.dw.com/en/bundestag-cancels-german-government-funding-of-non-democratic-parties/a-39372750; “German ends state funding for far-right NPD party,” The Local, June 23, 2017, https://www.thelocal.de/20170623/germany-ends-state-funding-for-far-right-npd-party. In early 2018, Germany’s constitutional bodies filed their applications with the Federal Constitutional Court, which ultimately decides whether the new legislation is applicable to the NPD. In response, however, the NPD submitted its complaint, stating that the new legislation itself was unconstitutional. The court’s decision is expected for 2019.“Ausschluss der NPD von staatlicher Parteienfinanzierung beschlossen,” Deutscher Bundestag, April, 26, 2018, https://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2018/kw17-de-npd-551138; “Bundesländer wollen NPD den Geldhahn zudrehen,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 2, 2018, https://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/parteienfinanzierung-npd-bundesrat-1.3851027; “Keine Staatliche Finanzierung für NPD,” Bundesministerium des Innern, April 18, 2018, https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/pressemitteilungen/DE/2018/04/npd-finanzierung.html; “Übersicht für das Jahr 2019 - 2 BvE 1/17,” Bundesverfassungsgericht, accessed April 2, 2019, https://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/DE/Verfahren/Jahresvorausschau/vs_2019/vorausschau_2019_node.html; Frank Bräutigam, “Noch einmal nach Karlsruhe,” Tagesschau, February 2, 2018, https://www.tagesschau.de/inland/npd-finanzierung-109.html.

Though the party saw an upswing in support in the mid-2010s, the NPD has been losing voters to the competing far-right group Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deutschland or AfD). In the September 2016 regional parliamentary elections for the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the NPD’s proportion of votes fell below the 5 percent of votes needed to maintain a seat.“The decline and fall of Germany’s ‘neo-Nazi’ NPD,” Deutsche Welle, September 7, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/the-decline-and-fall-of-germanys-neo-nazi-npd/a-19532536. As such, the NPD is no longer represented in any parliament in Germany, and was slated to lose about 1.3 million euros in state funding.“The decline and fall of Germany’s ‘neo-Nazi’ NPD,” Deutsche Welle, September 7, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/the-decline-and-fall-of-germanys-neo-nazi-npd/a-19532536; Christoph Titz, “Wähler verloren, Geld futsch,” Spiegel Online, September 7, 2016, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/npd-nach-pleite-in-mecklenburg-vorpommern-noch-klammer-a-1111182.html. Despite having faced a constitutional ban, major electoral setbacks, and a loss of federal funding, the group has retained substantial influence in parts of German civil society, and group’s leaders retained a degree of influence in Germany and in Europe.“The decline and fall of Germany’s ‘neo-Nazi’ NPD,” Deutsche Welle, September 7, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/the-decline-and-fall-of-germanys-neo-nazi-npd/a-19532536; Madeline Chambers, “German treads cautiously in court case to ban far-right party,” Reuters, August 18, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-npd-insight-idUSKCN10T14W; “German ends state funding for far-right NPD party,” The Local, June 23, 2017, https://www.thelocal.de/20170623/germany-ends-state-funding-for-far-right-npd-party. Former NPD chair Udo Voigt, for example, has served as an NPD representative in the European Parliament since 2014 and will run for re-election in May 2019. Before being elected as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP), Voigt had received a 10-month suspended sentence for incitement and expressing support for Hitler’s Schutzstaffel (SS).Madeline Chambers, “German treads cautiously in court case to ban far-right party,” Reuters, August 18, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-npd-insight-idUSKCN10T14W.

In June 2018, the NPD began conducting street patrols in the cities of Berlin and Cottbus to establish so-called “safe zones” (Schutzzonen).Robert Wagner, “Vorbestrafte Neonazis sorgen für rassistische ‚Schutzzonen‘,“ Belltower.News, December 7, 2018, https://www.belltower.news/die-schutzzonen-der-npd-vorbestrafte-neonazis-fuer-rassistische-sicherheit-78609/; “13. September 2018: Die NPD und ihre „Schutzzonen“-Kampagne,“ Register Berlin, accessed April 4, 2019, https://berliner-register.de/artikel/lichtenberg-hohensch%C3%B6nhausen/13-september-2018-die-npd-und-ihre-schutzzonen-kampagne/11426; “Germany: Police investigate far-right NPD video showing 'protection' patrol on trains,” Deutsche Welle, July 18, 2018, https://www.dw.com/en/germany-police-investigate-far-right-npd-video-showing-protection-patrol-on-trains/a-44717751. The NPD claimed that small groups of volunteers were going to patrol city centers and subway stations to help ensure public safety due to “highly overburdened authorities [that] can no longer guarantee [it].”Robert Wagner, “Vorbestrafte Neonazis sorgen für rassistische ‚Schutzzonen‘,“ Belltower.News, December 7, 2018, https://www.belltower.news/die-schutzzonen-der-npd-vorbestrafte-neonazis-fuer-rassistische-sicherheit-78609/. However, critics argued that the NPD campaign was merely an attempt to regain influence and recruit voters, as the volunteers left the premises quickly after posting pictures on social media.Robert Wagner, “Vorbestrafte Neonazis sorgen für rassistische ‚Schutzzonen‘,“ Belltower.News, December 7, 2018, https://www.belltower.news/die-schutzzonen-der-npd-vorbestrafte-neonazis-fuer-rassistische-sicherheit-78609/; “13. September 2018: Die NPD und ihre „Schutzzonen“-Kampagne,“ Register Berlin, accessed April 4, 2019, https://berliner-register.de/artikel/lichtenberg-hohensch%C3%B6nhausen/13-september-2018-die-npd-und-ihre-schutzzonen-kampagne/11426; “Germany: Police investigate far-right NPD video showing 'protection' patrol on trains,” Deutsche Welle, July 18, 2018, https://www.dw.com/en/germany-police-investigate-far-right-npd-video-showing-protection-patrol-on-trains/a-44717751. In January 2019, NPD party members launched street patrols in the Bavarian town of Amberg in response to a series of violent attacks perpetrated by asylum seekers. The assailants were aged between 17 and 19 and from Afghanistan, Syria, and Iran. The NPD posted pictures to social media of its members patrolling the town in vests labeled “We’re creating safe zones.” An NPD statement on Facebook declared, “When we say we will create protection zones in Amberg, we mean it.”Isolde Stöcker-Gietl, “Die NPD patrouilliert in Amberg,“ Mittelbayerische Zeitung, January 2, 2019, https://www.mittelbayerische.de/bayern-nachrichten/die-npd-patrouilliert-in-amberg-21705-art1735157.html; Chase Winter, “Police refute claims of far-right patrols after migrant attacks,” Deutsche Welle, Jannuary 3, 2019, https://www.dw.com/en/police-refute-claims-of-far-right-patrols-after-migrant-attacks/a-46944468.

Doctrine:

The NPD is a far-right extremist political party and has been described by the German intelligence service as “racist, anti-Semitic and revisionist.”Michelle Martin, “German party accused of neo-Nazi traits set for EU parliament,” Reuters, May 21, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/21/us-eu-election-germany-neonazis-idUSBREA4K0DY20140521. In the 1990s, the NPD radicalized further to the point of neo-Nazism.Armin Pfahl-Traughber, Der “zweite Frühling” der NPD (Berlin: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 2008), 24, http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_14498-544-1-30.pdf; Toralf Staud, Moderne Nazis: Die neuen Rechten und der Aufstieg der NPD (Cologne: KiWi-Taschenbuch, 2005); Christoph Schulze, “Das Viersäulenkonzept der NPD,” in: Strategien der extremen Rechten, ed. Stephan Braun and Alexander Geißler (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2009), 92-108; Armin Pfahl-Traughber, “Die ‘alte’ und die ‘neue’ NPD: Eine vergleichende Betrachtung zu Gefahrenpotential und Profil,” in: Strategien der extremen Rechten, ed. Stephan Braun and Alexander Geißler (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2009), 77-91; Harald Bergsdorf, Die neue NPD: Antidemokraten im Aufwind (Munich: Olzog - Aktuell GmbH, 2007); Marc Brandstetter, Die NPD im 21: Jahrhundert: Eine Analyse ihrer aktuellen Situation: ihrer Erfolgsbedingungen und Aussichten (Marburg: Tectum-Verlag, 2006); Andrea Röpke and Andreas Speit, Neonazis im Nadelstreif: Die NPD auf dem Weg in die Mitte der Gesellschaft (Berlin: Links, 2008). The NPD spreads militant racism, anti-Semitism, and hostility toward the United States, which the NPD considers to be “Jewish controlled.”Johannes Radke, “Wo ist eigentlich die Ostküste?” Zeit Online, September 7, 2009, http://blog.zeit.de/stoerungsmelder/2009/09/07/wo-ist-eigentlich-die-ostkuste_1382. According to its official 2010 policy “Work. Family. Fatherland.” (Arbeit. Familie. Vaterland), the NPD opposes multiculturalism due to concerns about the perceived “foreign infiltration” (Überfremdung) of Germany, in particular so-called Americanization and Islamization.Torsten Oppelland, “Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ” Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, June 5, 2017, http://www.bpb.de/politik/grundfragen/parteien-in-deutschland/kleinparteien/42205/npd. The NPD also opposes same-sex marriage, which was legalized in Germany in June 2017.Lizzie Dearden, “Germany’s constitutional court rejects ban on ‘neo-Nazi’ NPD party, Independent (London), January 17, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-npd-ban-federal-constitutional-court-ruling-neo-nazi-anti-semitism-refugees-racism-national-a7530806.html.

The NPD promotes a nationalist form of “socialism” in an effort to resist immigration and the economic effects of globalization.See “Warum lehnt die NPD die Globalisierung ab,” Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD), accessed November 29, 2014, http://npd.de/html/3481/artikel/detail/2101/; Patrick Gensing, “Die Angst der NPD vor dem ‘Volkstod’” Tagesschau, December 20, 2007, http://www.tagesschau.de/inland/meldung22508.html. According to the German intelligence service, the NPD opposes liberal democracy and appears to support an authoritarian state.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, accessed November 29, 2014, 94, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf; “Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, 95, accessed November 29, 2014, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf.

The NPD calls for reversing the post-World War II shift of the German-Polish border and restoring Germany’s borders to their status at the end of 1937.“Antwort der Deutschen Bundesregierung aufie kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Ulla Jelpke und der Fraktion der PDS,” Deutscher Bundestag, 14. Wahlperiode, Drucksache 14/6149, 2001, 2, http://dipbt.bundestag.de/doc/btd/14/061/1406149.pdf. In addition, several NPD members have praised leading members of the Nazi party while seeking to revise the history of the Nazi period.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, accessed November 29, 2014, 100-101, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf. In the course of the party’s radicalization since the 1990s, several militant neo-Nazis, among them individuals with previous criminal convictions, have become members of the NPD’s executive committee.Armin Pfahl-Traughber, Der ‘zweite Frühling’ der NPD (Berlin: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 2008), 24, http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_14498-544-1-30.pdf.

The NPD has also promoted anti-Muslim populist rhetoric. Party members have exaggerated or fabricated criminal offences committed by Muslims in order to fuel racism and anti-immigrant sentiments, as well as justify violence against refugees in Germany. For example, in December 2017, an Afghan refugee fatally stabbed his 15-year-old ex-girlfriend. The NPD responded on social media, falsely claiming that an increasing number of German women have become victims of “crimigrants” (Krimigranten), an invented defamatory compound word of criminals and immigrants. The NPD blamed the government’s open asylum policies, condemning that ruling “pro-immigration fanatics have opened the doors for killers and other criminals to Germany.”“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, July 24, 2018, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/download/vsbericht-2017.pdf. In August 2018, two refugees fatally stabbed a German man in Chemnitz. In response to false rumors that the German man was defending a woman from sexual assault, right-wing protestors—including NPD party members—took to the streets, leading to violent clashes with the police.Katharina Meyer zu Eppendorf and Max Holscher, “Der Schauermarsch, ” Spiegel Online, September 1, 2018, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/chemnitz-afd-pegida-und-pro-chemnitz-schliessen-sich-bei-demo-zusammen-a-1226122.html. In January 2019, NPD members launched street patrols to establish so-called “safe zones” in the Bavarian town of Amberg. The patrols were formed in response to a series of violent attacks by asylum seekers, aged between 17 and 19 from Afghanistan, Syria, and Iran.Isolde Stöcker-Gietl, “Die NPD patrouilliert in Amberg,“ Mittelbayerische Zeitung, January 2, 2019, https://www.mittelbayerische.de/bayern-nachrichten/die-npd-patrouilliert-in-amberg-21705-art1735157.html; Chase Winter, “Police refute claims of far-right patrols after migrant attacks,” Deutsche Welle, Jannuary 3, 2019, https://www.dw.com/en/police-refute-claims-of-far-right-patrols-after-migrant-attacks/a-46944468.

German neo-Nazis continue to perpetuate racist ideas, including by saying that “members of other races always remain physically, mentally and spiritually a foreign body.”Armin Pfahl-Traughber, Der ‘zweite Frühling’ der NPD (Berlin: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 2008), 24, http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_14498-544-1-30.pdf. The NPD considers the presence of immigrants in Germany—regardless of whether they hold German citizenship—to be an attack on the German ethnic community (Volksgemeinschaft). Therefore, the NPD advocates deporting immigrants to their respective countries of origin.“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, 95, accessed November 29, 2014, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf. The NPD also advocates Germany’s exit from the European Union and NATO.Lizzie Dearden, “Germany’s constitutional court rejects ban on ‘neo-Nazi’ NPD party, Independent (London), January 17, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-npd-ban-federal-constitutional-court-ruling-neo-nazi-anti-semitism-refugees-racism-national-a7530806.html.

Organizational Structure:

The NPD is organized similarly to mainstream German political parties, in accordance with the German Political Parties Act. The group has a federal executive board and 16 state chapters, as well as several county- and regional-level entities. Udo Pastörs, a known hardliner,“Hardliner Pastörs ist neuer NPD-Chef," Die Zeit, January 10, 2014, http://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2014-01/pastoers-neuer-npd-chef. stepped down as interim chairman in November 2014. He was replaced by Frank Franz, who reportedly belongs to a more moderate wing of the NPD.“Right-wing Extremist Membership (Overall View)”, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV), accessed December 15, 2016, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/en/fields-of-work/right-wing-extremism/figures-and-facts-right-wing-extremism/right-wing-extremist-following-2015; “Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, July 24, 2018, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/download/vsbericht-2017.pdf; Torsten Oppelland, “Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ” Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, June 5, 2017, http://www.bpb.de/politik/grundfragen/parteien-in-deutschland/kleinparteien/42205/npd.

The party had a membership of 4,500 as of 2017, a considerable reduction compared to the party’s 1968 peak of approximately 28,000 members.“Right-wing Extremist Membership (Overall View)”, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV), accessed December 15, 2016, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/en/fields-of-work/right-wing-extremism/figures-and-facts-right-wing-extremism/right-wing-extremist-following-2015; “Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, July 24, 2018, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/download/vsbericht-2017.pdf; Torsten Oppelland, “Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ” Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, June 5, 2017, http://www.bpb.de/politik/grundfragen/parteien-in-deutschland/kleinparteien/42205/npd. In 1994, political scientist Jürgen W. Falter determined that three factors—namely dissatisfaction with the political elite, feelings of social disadvantage, and a general far-right extremist attitude—drive voters to elect far-right political parties in Germany. According to Falter, younger men from rural areas in Eastern Germany therefore represent the majority of NPD voters.Torsten Oppelland, “Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ” Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, June 5, 2017, http://www.bpb.de/politik/grundfragen/parteien-in-deutschland/kleinparteien/42205/npd.

The NPD has four sub-groups, the Young Nationalists (Junge Nationalisten or JN; formerly known as Young Nationalist Democrats), the Circle of National Women (Ring Nationaler Frauen or RNF), the Local Politics Union of the NPD (Kommunalpolitische Vereinigung der NPD or KPV), and the German Voice Publishing Company (Deutsche Stimme Verlagsgesellschaft mbH or DS Verlag).“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, July 24, 2018, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/download/vsbericht-2017.pdf; “Wir sind Junge Nationalisten,“ Junge-nationalisten.de, January 14, 2018, https://junge-nationalisten.de/allgemein/wir-sind-junge-nationalisten/.

The NPD’s political work is based on what it calls a “four pillar strategy.” As part of its first pillar, “Fight for Hearts and Minds” (Kampf um die Köpfe), the NPD seeks to acquire public acceptance by means of “nationalrevolutionary [sic] grass-roots work.” Secondly, under the “Fight for the Street” (Kampf um die Straße) pillar, the party aims to spread its ideology and influence public opinion. Under the third pillar, “Fight for the Parliaments” (Kampf um die Parlamente), the NPD endeavors to win seats in federal and regional parliamentary elections. Fourthly, the “Fight for the Organised Will” (Kampf um den organisierten Willen) pillar involves cooperating with various like-minded stakeholders to form a “comprehensive national opposition movement” under NPD leadership.“NJW 2017, 611 – NPD prohibition (NPD-Parteiverbotsverfahren),” German Law Archive, accessed April 3, 2019, https://germanlawarchive.iuscomp.org/?p=2250; “Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, July 24, 2018, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/download/vsbericht-2017.pdf.

Financing:

Germany’s political party legislation mandates that each political party receives 0.85 euros in public funding for every valid vote it gets in European, federal, or regional elections until a party receives four million votes, after which it receives 0.70 euros per vote. In order to be eligible, parties must secure 0.5 percent of the vote in European or federal elections, and 1.0 percent in regional elections. Parties also receive 0.38 euros in public matching funds for every euro they receive in donations, up to 3,300 euros.“Entscheidung in Karlsruhe: NPD muss vorerst auf staatliche Finanzierung verzichten,” Der Spiegel, November 11, 2013, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/npd-muss-vorerst-auf-staatliche-finanzierung-verzichten-a-933021.html.

As a result of losing state parliamentary seats in the September 2016 regional elections in the northeastern state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania the NPD lost about 1.3 million euros in annual funding from the state.“The decline and fall of Germany’s ‘neo-Nazi’ NPD,” Deutsche Welle, September 7, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/the-decline-and-fall-of-germanys-neo-nazi-npd/a-19532536; Christoph Titz, “Wähler verloren, Geld futsch,” Spiegel Online, September 7, 2016, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/npd-nach-pleite-in-mecklenburg-vorpommern-noch-klammer-a-1111182.html. In addition, the NPD received only 0.4 percent of votes in the 2017 federal parliamentary elections, which further deteriorated the party’s financial situation. However, the NPD still received 852,000 euros from the state for 2017 and remained eligible for several tax benefits.“Bundestagswahl 2017,” Bundeswahlleiter, accessed April 2, 2019, https://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/bundestagswahlen/2017/ergebnisse/bund-99.html; “Auch Bundestag will NPD Staatsmittel streichen,” Zeit Online, April 27, 2018, https://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2018-04/parteienfinanzierung-bundestag-npd-antrag-bundesverfassungsgericht; “Keine Staatliche Finanzierung für NPD,” Bundesministerium des Innern, April, 18, 2018, https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/pressemitteilungen/DE/2018/04/npd-finanzierung.html.

After the proposal to ban the NPD failed, the German parliament (Bundestag) voted to amend Article 21 of the German constitution and end financing for “anti-constitutional” parties on June 22, 2017. The measure was clearly targeted at the NPD. In early 2018, all three of Germany’s constitutional bodies—council, government, and parliament—filed their applications with the Federal Constitutional Court, which ultimately decides if the new legislation applies to the NPD.“Ausschluss der NPD von staatlicher Parteienfinanzierung beschlossen,” Deutscher Bundestag, April, 26, 2018, https://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2018/kw17-de-npd-551138; “Bundesländer wollen NPD den Geldhahn zudrehen,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 2, 2018, https://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/parteienfinanzierung-npd-bundesrat-1.3851027; “Keine Staatliche Finanzierung für NPD,” Bundesministerium des Innern, April 18, 2018, https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/pressemitteilungen/DE/2018/04/npd-finanzierung.html; Jefferson Chase, “Bundestag cancels German government funding of non-democratic parties,” Deutsche Welle, June 22, 2017, http://www.dw.com/en/bundestag-cancels-german-government-funding-of-non-democratic-parties/a-39372750; “German ends state funding for farright NPD party,” The Local, June 23, 2017, https://www.thelocal.de/20170623/germany-ends-state-funding-for-far-right-npd-party. In response, the NPD submitted its complaint, stating that the new legislation itself was unconstitutional. The court’s decision is expected in 2019.“Ausschluss der NPD von staatlicher Parteienfinanzierung beschlossen,” Deutscher Bundestag, April, 26, 2018, https://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2018/kw17-de-npd-551138; “Bundesländer wollen NPD den Geldhahn zudrehen,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 2, 2018, https://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/parteienfinanzierung-npd-bundesrat-1.3851027; “Keine Staatliche Finanzierung für NPD,” Bundesministerium des Innern, April 18, 2018, https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/pressemitteilungen/DE/2018/04/npd-finanzierung.html; “Übersicht für das Jahr 2019 - 2 BvE 1/17,” Bundesverfassungsgericht, accessed April 2, 2019, https://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/DE/Verfahren/Jahresvorausschau/vs_2019/vorausschau_2019_node.html; Frank Bräutigam, “Noch einmal nach Karlsruhe,” Tagesschau, February 2, 2018, https://www.tagesschau.de/inland/npd-finanzierung-109.html.

Since May 2014, the NPD is represented in the European Parliament with one member, Udo Voigt, and receives EU funding.Remi Adekoya, Helena Smith, et al., “Meet the new faces ready to sweep into the European parliament,” Guardian, May 26, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/26/meet-the-new-faces-in-the-european-parliament; Nikolaj Nielsen, “EU parliament mulls funding ban for far-right party,” May 13, 2016, https://euobserver.com/institutional/133428. The NPD is determined to keep its seat in the upcoming European election in May 2019.“Europawahl 2019: Ja zur Festung Europa – Ja zur NPD!,” NPD, accessed April 2, 2019, https://npd.de/2019/01/europawahl-2019-ja-zur-festung-europa-ja-zur-npd/. The NPD also received significant financial support from neo-Nazi Jürgen Rieger, who belonged to the party from 2006 until his death in May 2010.Ralf Wiegand, “NPD verliert wichtigen Geldgeber,” Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 17, 2010, http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/neonazi-juergen-rieger-tot-npd-verliert-wichtigen-geldgeber-1.150873. In 2017, the NPD received 757,000 euros from three NPD sympathizers, according to a report in the Spiegel.“NPD erbt 750.000 Euro,” Spiegel Online, March 29, 2019, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/npd-erbt-750-000-euro-a-1260351.html.

In November 2013, the German Federal Constitutional Court fined the NPD 1.27 million euros due to errors in the party’s financial accounting. The fines were deducted from the NPD’s public funding.“Entscheidung in Karlsruhe: NPD muss vorerst auf staatliche Finanzierung verzichten,” Der Spiegel, November 11, 2013, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/npd-muss-vorerst-auf-staatliche-finanzierung-verzichten-a-933021.html.

Key Leaders

  • Udo Pastörs

    Former Interim Party Chairman, former Member of the State Parliament in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
  • Udo Voigt

    Former Party Chairman, Member of European Parliament (MEP)
  • Frank Franz

    Party Chairman
  • Ronny Zasowk

    Deputy Party Chair
  • Thorsten Heise

    Deputy Chairman
  • Stefan Köster

    Deputy Chairman, Head of the NPD Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
  • Frank Schwerdt

    Former Deputy Party Chairman (Deceased)
  • Sascha Rossmüller

    Board Member
  • Karl Richter

    Former Deputy Chairman, former Head of the NPD Bavaria
  • Arne Schimmer

    Party Committee Member for Economic Policy
  • Andreas Storr

    Former Federal Treasurer, former Member of the State Parliament in Saxony
  • David Petereit

    Deputy Head of the NPD Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
  • Jürgen Gansel

    Former Member of the State Parliament in Saxony
  • Christian Häger

    Head of Young Nationalists
  • Patrick Wieschke

    Former Head of the NPD Thuringia
  • Jörg Hänel

    Former Head of the NPD Berlin

History

 

Violent Activities

Designations

Designations by the U.S. Government:
None.

Designations by Foreign Governments and Organizations:
None.

Associations

Ties to extremist entities:

Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deutschland or AfD)

The NPD reportedly lost popular support and electoral votes due to the rapid rise of the right-wing nationalist AfD.Torsten Oppelland, “Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands,” Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, June 5, 2017, http://www.bpb.de/politik/grundfragen/parteien-in-deutschland/kleinparteien/42205/npd. Nonetheless, in 2016, AfD politicians in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania offered to support and cooperate with the NPD if they both win seats in the subsequent state parliamentary elections.Dietmar Neuerer, “Die Maske ist gefallen, Nazis helfen Nazis,” Handelsblatt, August 31, 2016, https://www.handelsblatt.com/politik/deutschland/landtagswahlen-2016/afd-fuer-kooperation-mit-npd-die-maske-ist-gefallen-nazis-helfen-nazis/14477778-all.html. According to the German newspaper Zeit in March 2018, some AfD parliamentarians have employed individuals with known far-right extremist and racist backgrounds, including supporters of the NPD and others.Kai Biermann, et.al, “AfD-Abgeordnete beschäftigen Rechtsextreme und Verfassungsfeinde,” Zeit Online, March 21, 2018, https://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2018-03/afd-bundestag-mitarbeiter-rechtsextreme-identitaere-bewegung. In August 2018, far-right protestors—including NPD and AfD party members as well as known neo-Nazis—took to the streets in response to a fatal stabbing attack of a German man by two refugees in Chemnitz.Katharina Meyer zu Eppendorf and Max Holscher, “Der Schauermarsch, ” Spiegel Online, September 1, 2018, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/chemnitz-afd-pegida-und-pro-chemnitz-schliessen-sich-bei-demo-zusammen-a-1226122.html.

Freedom Party of Austria (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs or FPÖ) (officially until 2010)Heribert Schiedel, Extreme Rechte in Europa (Wien: Edition Steinbauer, 2011), p. 93-95.

National Rally (formerly National Front) (France; officially until 2013)“Front National zu Gast auf NPD-Veranstaltung,” NRW rechtsaußen, February 11, 2013, http://nrwrex.wordpress.com/2013/02/11/sbe-front-national-zu-gast-auf-npd-veranstaltung/.

As recently as August 2013, an official delegation of the National Front participated in a NPD meeting. See “‘Deutschland ist kein souveräner Staat!’ ‘Brainstorming’ vor dem Wahlkampf-Endspurt: Inspirierende NPD-Sommeruniversität im Saarland," in Deutsche Stimme October 2013, 12.

Jobbik

Reports indicate both Jobbik and the NPD are interested in establishing links between the two groups. In February 2007, then NPD chairman Udo Voigt travelled to Budapest for an annual meeting of European neo-Nazis. In addition, in 2008, the NPD publication Deutsche Stimme published an interview with Jobbik’s then-chairman Gábor Vona. The interview was conducted by Benedikt Frings, a former NPD candidate in the 2005 regional election in North Rhine-Westphalia. The NPD has said that it seeks to build “informal contacts” with Jobbik.Jannis Bruehl, “Den Westen fest im Blick," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 17, 2010, http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/neonazis-in-ungarn-und-die-npd-den-westen-fest-im-blick-1.112091.

Hizb ut-Tahrir

Hizb ut-Tahrir is an Islamist group which has been banned in Germany since 2003. In October 2002, leading members of the NPD, including then-chairman Udo Voigt and the party’s former lawyer Horst Mahler, took part in a Hizb ut-Tahrir event at a Berlin university.Andreas Ulrich, “Dolch im Herzen," Der Spiegel, 47/2002, November 18, 2002, http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-25718128.html.

Alliance for Peace and Freedom (APF)

In 2014, former NPD chairman and newly elected MEP Udo Voigt formed the European political party “Alliance for Peace and Freedom” (APF) together with former chairman of the British National Party Nick Griffin and leader of the Italian Forza Nouva Roberto Fiore. APF also built close ties with Hungary’s ultranationalist party Jobbik and the Greek far-right party Golden Dawn. Overall, however, the attempt to advance European-wide cooperation among far-right political parties appeared to have been unsuccessful. In May 2018, the European Union adopted new legislation restricting the funding of European political parties and their think tanks in response to certain exploitative practices. Subsequently, in September, the APF and its affiliated think tank Europa Terra Nostra was officially deregistered by the European Union, leading to its defunding for 2019.Ralf Fischer, “Die Internationalsoziale,” jungle.world, April 5, 2018, https://jungle.world/index.php/artikel/2018/14/die-internationalsoziale; Nikolaj Nielsen, “Ultra-right parties in EU funding axe,” EU Observer, September 28, 2018, https://euobserver.com/political/142977; Authority for European political parties and European political foundations, “Implementation of Regulation 2018/673 amending Regulation No°1141/2014,” September 27, 2018, http://www.epgencms.europarl.europa.eu/cmsdata/upload/fc24ff5d-b483-4455-a57c-3ecf44819d3b/2018_09_27_PRESS_RELEASE_IMPLEMENTATION_OF_REFORM.pdf.

Ties to countries:

Russia

NPD officials appear to be in contact with Russian President Vladimir Putin and his circle.Heinrich Vogel, “Sehnsucht nach einfachen Antworten und Führern," Focus Online, August 25, 2014, http://www.focus.de/politik/experten/vogel/putin-wir-vertrauen-dir-sehnsucht-nach-einfachen-antworten-und-fuehrern_id_4084169.html. In 2012, the NPD chapter in Saxony-Anhalt stated in a publication, “While the West is getting increasingly tangled up in the web of Zionist wizards, Putin is leading his Russia boldly to new strength, freedom and independence. The German people can only dream of such political heroes at the moment.”Sebastian Hesse-Kastein, “Warum die NPD in Wladimir Putin ein Vorbild gefunden hat,” MDR Nachrichten, April 15, 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20140419204644/http://www.mdr.de/nachrichten/putin-npd100_zc-e9a9d57e_zs-6c4417e7.html. According to the NPD, “a mental and national rebirth of Europe can only take place on the pillars of a Russian-German friendship.”Richard Herzinger, “In Europa bilden sich üble Bündnisse für Putin,” Die Welt, May 7, 2014, http://www.welt.de/debatte/kommentare/article127739762/In-Europa-bilden-sich-ueble-Buendnisse-fuer-Putin.html. During the Ukraine crisis in 2014, the NPD has sided firmly with Russia, arguing that the problem was the European Union’s actions, not Russian expansionism, and rejecting Ukrainian membership in NATO.Sebastian Hesse-Kastein, “Warum die NPD in Wladimir Putin ein Vorbild gefunden hat,” MDR Nachrichten, April 15, 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20140419204644/http://www.mdr.de/nachrichten/putin-npd100_zc-e9a9d57e_zs-6c4417e7.html. In 2015, Russia’s nationalist Rodina party invited politicians from several far-right political parties—including the NPD, Greece’s Golden Dawn, and the British National Party—to discuss “traditional values” of family and Christianity.“NPD auf Einladung von Putin-Freunden in St. Petersburg,” Der Tagesspiegel, March 22, 2015, https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/rechtsextremisten-npd-auf-einladung-von-putin-freunden-in-st-petersburg/11540858.html. In July 2017, MEP Udo Voigt criticized the recent extension of EU sanctions against Russia, calling it short-sighted, hypocritical, and self-sabotaging for Germany.Karl Richter, “‘Kurzsichtige Rußland-Sanktionen‘,” NPD, July 4, 2017, https://npd.de/2017/07/kurzsichtige-russland-sanktionen/. In March 2018, he congratulated Putin for his re-election, explaining that “the ones who want to work together with Russia today are right. Russia, not America, is the natural partner of the Europeans.”Karl Richter, “Congratulations, Vladimir Vladimirovich!,” March 19, 2018, https://npd.de/2018/03/congratulations-vladimir-vladimirovich/?lang=en.

Iran

In the past, the NPD has sought to demonstrate its solidarity with the Islamic Republic of Iran and particularly former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.See Anton Maegerle, “Die iranische Rechtsextremismus-Connection," in Vierteljahresheft Tribüne: Zeitschrift zum Verständnis des Judentums, 2nd Quarter 2006, http://www.doew.at/cms/download/42gbn/re_maegerle_iran_re.pdf; Anton Maegerle, “Solidarität mit Ahmadinedschad," in Tribüne: Zeitschrift zum Verständnis des Judentums, 3rd Quarter 2009, http://www.doew.at/cms/download/52kb7/re_maegerle_iran.pdf. Thus, NPD officials hoped for Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad “as a potential ally for a new Germany.”Stephan Grigat, “Die neue Achse Budapest-Teheran," Unique, April 2012, http://www.univie.ac.at/unique/uniquecms/?p=1310. The NPD youth organization congratulated Ahmadinejad on his re-election: They were happy that Ahmadinejad did not shun “the confrontation with the capitalist world power USA and its Zionist pedants Israel. […] His fearless standing up for the disenfranchised and oppressed Palestinians and for the freedom of research in contemporary history earned him the hatred of the Zionist rulers of Israel and the U.S.”Heribert Schiedel, “Heiliger Hass: Zur rechtsextrem-iranischen Freundschaft," in Der Iran im Weltsystem. Bündisse des Regimes und Perspektiven der Freiheitsbewegung, ed. Stephan Grigat and Simone Dinah Hartmann (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2010). One example of this “freedom of research” that the NPD youth mentioned was a Holocaust denial conference that the Iranian leadership held in December 2006. During the 2006 football world championship in Germany, the NPD staged several protests to demonstrate its solidarity with Iran. The NPD’s then-chair, Udo Voigt, even wrote on the party website that “Germany and the world need a visit of the Iranian head of state.”Anna Bilger, “Rechtsextremismus: NPD unter iranischer Flagge," Der Spiegel, June 19, 2006, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/rechtsextremismus-npd-unter-iranischer-flagge-a-422195.html. During an interview with Iranian journalists in 2010, Voigt downplayed the Holocaust, saying, “The six million cannot be true. No more than 340,000 could have died in Auschwitz. The Jews always say that because one Jew died and because he is a Jew, it is a crime. But there is a difference if we pay for 6 million or for 340,000.”“NPD-Chef verharmlost Holocaust," Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 17, 2010, http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/npd-und-iran-npd-chef-verharmlost-holocaust-1.357038. In January 2018, Voigt, as a Member of European Parliament, advocated during a parliamentary session to lift all sanctions against Iran. Although the European Council previously lifted nuclear-related economic and financial sanctions against Iran, restrictive measures related to violations of human rights remained in force. Voigt criticized the lack of sanctions against the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Israel, who he perceived have violated human rights and committed war crimes.Karl Richter, “Udo Voigt: ‘The NPD is on the side of Iran!’,” NPD, January 17. 2018, https://npd.de/2018/01/udo-voigt-the-npd-is-on-the-side-of-iran/?lang=en. In March 2019, a delegation of far-right extremist European politicians—including Voigt—met with Hezbollah’s foreign affairs head Ammar Al-Moussawi in Beirut to “express support for the Lebanese terrorist organization’s fight against the Jewish state,” according to the Jerusalem Post.Benjamin Weinthal, “German Neo-Nazi Politician Meets Hezbollah, Supports Terror Against Israel,” Jerusalem Post, March 24, 2019, https://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/German-leader-meets-with-Hezbollah-supports-terrorism-against-Israel-584259.

Ties to other groups:

The NPD is believed to have a number of connections to neo-Nazi groups. In November 2011, the anti-fascist blog Gamma published data from an online chat forum called “Hard to Hate,” which was allegedly used by some leading neo-Nazis. The data was provided by a former member of the forum and dates back to 2009. In the forum, one member, an alleged former NPD candidate during local government elections in 2009, stated that the NPD is nothing more than “a pragmatic tool for our political work.”Birger Menke, “Neonazis und NPD: Unter Kameraden," Der Spiegel, November 23, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/justiz/neonazis-und-npd-unter-kameraden-a-799340.html. At a different point, the member declared that the NPD youth organization should “establish itself as a closed ideological unit to develop leaders and personalities based on the [national socialist] model.”Birger Menke, “Neonazis und NPD: Unter Kameraden," Der Spiegel, November 23, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/justiz/neonazis-und-npd-unter-kameraden-a-799340.html. The 2013 intelligence report of the Interior Ministry of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania appeared to echo these assertions, stating that “the neo-Nazi squad appears to pursue the goal of using the NPD as a vehicle for their own political ambitions.”Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013," Ministerium fuer Inneres und Sport, 54, http://www.verfassungsschutz-mv.de/cms2/Verfassungsschutz_prod/Verfassungsschutz/content_downloads/Verfassungsschutzberichte/Verfassungsschutzbericht_2013.pdf.

Media Coverage

Rhetoric

View All

NPD Hamburg chapter website, October 16, 2013

“The puppets of Zion include next to Barack Obama nearly all politicians of the Federal Republic of Germany and the western world… Israel is a source of unrest in the Muslim world and took part in many murders and wars… George W. Bush and the other ‘hawks’ always talk about a last war that is meant to lead to peace. To think this thought to its logical end can only lead to the demand: ‘Bombs on Israel.’”“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, 99, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf.

NPD Bavaria Facebook page, April 4, 2013

“It may be that our opponents are causing us a bit of extra work but that doesn’t bother us. They achieve with these measures only that the contempt for this system of so called democrats becomes even bigger and that the resistance against the dictatorship of self-proclaimed do-gooders will be even firmer.”“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, 96, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf.

NPD youth organization, 2009

“The youth group congratulated Iran’s then-president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, on his re-election, praising him for not shunning “the confrontation with the capitalist world power USA and its Zionist pedants Israel. […] His fearless standing up for the disenfranchised and oppressed Palestinians and for the freedom of research in contemporary history earned him the hatred of the Zionist rulers of Israel and the U.S.”Heribert Schiedel, “Heiliger Hass. Zur rechtsextrem-iranischen Freundschaft,” in: Der Iran im Weltsystem. Bündisse des Regimes und Perspektiven der Freiheitsbewegung, ed. Stephan Grigat and Simone Dinah Hartmann (Innsbruck 2010).

Udo Voigt, then-party chair, January 2005

“We would like to thank them for building the foundation for the chancellery of the new German Reich.” Roland Nelles and Gabor Steingart, “The Threat of the NPD: Rise of German Right-Wing Party Evokes Ghosts of Past,” Der Spiegel, May 2005, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/the-threat-of-the-npd-rise-of-german-right-wing-party-evokes-ghosts-of-past-a-339604.html.

Udo Voigt, then-party chair, January 2005

“We would like to thank them for building the foundation for the chancellery of the new German Reich.”Roland Nelles and Gabor Steingart, “The Threat of the NPD: Rise of German Right-Wing Party Evokes Ghosts of Past,” Der Spiegel, May 2005, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/the-threat-of-the-npd-rise-of-german-right-wing-party-evokes-ghosts-of-past-a-339604.html.

Udo Pastörs, 1992

Recent violent, racist riots are an expression of “justifiable anger” and the commemoration of the victims of racist violence is “filth.”Annett Meiritz and Laurence Thio, “Protokolle der NPD-Hetzparolen: Brauner Pöbel im Parlament,” Spiegel Online, December 11, 2012, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/protokoll-der-npd-hetzparolen-braunes-grauen-im-parlament-a-871913.html.

Document of the NPD party executive

“An African, Asian or Oriental will never be German, because the bestowal of printed paper (the German passport ) does not alter the biological heredity. (...) Therefore, members of other races will always remain physically, mentally and spiritually foreign bodies.”“Diese Zitate sollen die NPD überführen,” Die Zeit, December 3, 2013, http://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2013-12/npd-verbot-antrag-zitate.

NDP youth wing publication

“[A] monkey can learn to use a light switch but he will never understand why the light turns on and off… In the same way can African and Asian people assimilate to Europeans by adopting their behaviors and clothes. But they will never be Europeans because that’s not what they are.”“Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, accessed November 29, 2014, 106, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/vsbericht-2013.pdf.

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