Doctrine:For more information on Jobbik and its doctrine, in particular, see András Bíró Nagy, Tamás Boros, and Aron Varga, Right-Wing Extremism in Hungary (Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, December 2012), http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id-moe/09566.pdf.
Jobbik describes itself as a “principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party” whose “fundamental purpose” is the protection of “Hungarian values and interests.”“Jobbik - The Movement for a Better Hungary,” Facebook, accessed September 11, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/JobbikEnglish?sk=info. Its ideology is neo-fascist, combining militant ethno-nationalism with anti-Semitism and anti-Roma racism. A Hungarian court ruled in January 2014 that Jobbik may be referred to as “neo-Nazi” in Hungary.Hungarian historian Laszló Karsai was brought before the court because he had called Jobbik a neo-Nazi party. But a Hungarian appeals court dismissed the charge, justifying Karsai’s statement as an exercise of freedom of speech. See “Gerichtsurteil in Ungarn: Jobbik darf als Neonazipartei bezeichnet werden,” Spiegel Online, January 28, 2014, http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/urteil-in-ungarn-jobbik-darf-als-neonazi-partei-bezeichnet-werden-a-945998.html.
The party also advocates a militant revanchism and seeks the “reunification” of the Hungarian nation and a revision of the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. Jobbik's Greater Hungarian irredentist claims are also reflected in pleas for cross-border ethnic self-determination. For example, the party demands “territorial autonomy“ for parts of Romania and desires to make Transcarpathian Ukraine an independent Hungarian district. Since a quarter of ethnic Hungarians live outside the country, Jobbik dedicates itself to supporting the cause of significant Hungarian minority populations abroad. In effect, Jobbik stirs up ethnic hatred in neighboring countries. In March 2014, in response to a Hungarian nationalist demonstration in Târgu Mureș/Marosvásárhely, Romanian president Traian Băsescu publicly asked for an entry ban on Jobbik members to Romania.Concurrently, Moldova’s government accuses Romania of destabilizing the country. See “Băsescu spielt die Nationalismus-Karte,” EuroTopics.net, March 13, 2014, http://mobile.eurotopics.net/m-de/ps/top/detail/ARTICLE139989; Alla Skvartova, Centrum für angewandte Politikforschung an der LMU München, Country Report: Moldova, accessed August 14, 2014, 11-13, http://www.cap.uni-muenchen.de/download/2003/2003_Skvartova.pdf.
Jobbik adores Hungarian fascist and Nazi collaborator Miklós Horty. In 2011, Jobbik stated on its website’s homepage:
“Just after the tragedy of Trianon Hungary succeeded in a very fast consolidation. The Horthy-era released positive élan for the nation… Under Horthy Hungary had a strong and impressing elite, which pursued the goal of the appeal of the unfair Trianon peace diktat… But since then, we have no national elite any more. During the fifty years of communism we had an internationalist elite and today we have a globalist elite. Neither of them was able and willing to represent national interests. This had the worst consequences to the mindset of the Hungarian People.” “Eine Tragödie für Europa als Ganzes,” Zurzeit.at, May 16, 2011, http://archive.today/RbEHD#selection-425.0-425.37.
While the conservative Fidesz–Hungarian Civic Alliance shares Jobbik’s willingness to defend Horthy, Jobbik’s blatant use of the Nazi “Arrow Cross” sets Jobbik at odds with Fidesz. In 2008, Gabor Vona claimed in an interview with a German neo-Nazi journal that “organized Jewry” would try to interfere in the internal affairs of Hungary. He shut “from the statements of the Jews in Hungary and of international Jewry that the [Hungarian] guard stands in their way and that they want to buy whole Hungary.”See “Ungarn schützen, das ist unser Ziel: Bededikt Frings für die DS im Gespräch mit Gábor Vona, dem Chef der Ungarischen Garde,” in Deutsche Stimme (May 2008): 9.
To Jobbik, besides the purported Jewish threat, the Hungarian people’s largest problem was the “Gypsies” because of “their extremely disproportionate crime rate and indolence.”See “Ungarn schützen, das ist unser Ziel: Bededikt Frings für die DS im Gespräch mit Gábor Vona, dem Chef der Ungarischen Garde,” in Deutsche Stimme (May 2008): 9. And due to the primacy of anti-Semitism in Jobbik’s ideology, the Jews are also behind purported Hungarian conflicts with the Romani: “A crumbling of a civil war–inflicted country is the easiest prey for the rich Jews. And besides, you can easily adopt emergency legislation in a war situation. This is the reason for the expected civil war between Hungarian and Romani people, to which the Jews incite in the background, their hands rubbing.”Gregor Mayer and Bernhard Odehnal, Aufmarsch: Die rechte Gefahr aus Osteuropa (St. Pölten/Salzburg: Residenz, 2012), 69. Scholars have warned that Jobbik’s violent anti-“gypsy” rhetoric “constitutes a ticking time bomb in relations between the Roma and non-Roma in Hungary.”András Bíró Nagy, Tamás Boros, and Zoltán Vasali, “More Radical than the Radicals: The Jobbik Party in International Comparison,” in Right-Wing Extremism In Europe, ed. Ralf Melzer and Sebastian Serafin (Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2013), 234, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/dialog/10031.pdf.
Official Hungarian and (since 2014) EU sources. The party also receives private donations. Some reports claim that Jobbik is also financed by the Russian and Iranian regimes.“Hungary’s Far-Right Backed by ‘Rolling Moscow Roubles,’” Herald (Scotland), June 13, 2010, http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/world-news/hungary-s-far-right-backed-by-rolling-moscow-roubles-1.1034539.
- August 2013: Three neo-Nazis are sentenced to life imprisonment and another to 13 years in prison for the murder of six Roma in 2008 and 2009. Two of them were members of Jobbik’s Hungarian Guard who sought to provoke Romani people into violent reactions.Anton Maegerle, “Braunes Killerkommando,” Blick nach Rechts, August 7, 2013, http://www.bnr.de/artikel/hintergrund/braunes-killerkommando.
Designations by the U.S. Government:
Designations by Foreign Governments and Organizations:
Ties to entities designated by the U.S. or foreign governments:
No information available.
Ties to other entities:
|IranFor example, party leader Gábor Vona asked Mahmoud Ahmadinejad before Hungary’s 2010 parliamentary elections to send members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards as election observers to Hungary. And Jobbik-dominated east Hungarian city Tiszavasvári entered into a sister-city arrangement with the Iranian city Ardabil. Finally, Jobbik MP Márton Gyöngyösi has taken a number of steps to establish what he calls a “strategic partnership” with Iran, such as chairing the Parliamentary Committee for Hungarian-Iranian Friendship.” According to Gyöngyösi, Iran is “a very peaceful country that has never started a war, in contrast to Israel, which has declared war for any reasons at any neighboring state” (see Antje Lehmann, “Vorbild Iran: Rechtsextreme in Ungarn suchen Heil im Nahen Osten,” Pester Lloyd, February 7, 2012, http://www.pesterlloyd.net/2012_06/06gyongyosi/06gyongyosi.html).||Palestinian-Hungarian CommunityIn September 2011, Jobbik members joined a demonstration of the Palestinian-Hungarian Community. (see “Propalästinensische Demonstration in Budapest – Jobbik-Sympathisanten skandieren 'dreckige Juden,” Pusztaranger, September 24, 2011, http://pusztaranger.wordpress.com/2011/09/24/propalastinensische-demonstration-in-budapest-jobbik-sympathisanten-skandieren-dreckige-juden).|
|Freedom Party of Austria (officially until 2010)||European “New Right” or “Identity” movement (e.g., Bloc Identitaire, France)|
|Casa Pound||Alliance of European National Movements (member parties).Heribert Schiedel, Extreme Rechte in Europa, (Vienna: Edition Steinbauer, 2011), 30-32; Anton Maegerle, “Forum für Patrioten und Traditionalisten,” BNR.de, September 10, 2014, http://www.bnr.de/artikel/aktuelle-meldungen/forum-f-r-patrioten-und-traditionalisten; Igino Ceremigna, “‘Casa Pound Italy’ meets ‘Golden Dawn’ at conference in Rome,” November 29, 2013, http://www.demotix.com/news/3376553/casapound-italy-meets-golden-dawn-conference-rome#media-3376493; “‘Identitäre’ unter Neonazis, Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, March 2014, http://www.doew.at/erkennen/rechtsextremismus/neues-von-ganz-rechts/archiv/maerz-2014/identitaere-unter-neonazis.|