A renewed spotlight has been placed on the power and influence of Iran-aligned militias in Iraq. Known as the Popular Mobilization Forces ( PMFs ), these predominantly Shiite, anti-American, and anti-Sunni extremists have created issues for Iraqi Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi. PMF groups, which include Asaib Ahl al-Haq , the Badr Organization, and Kata’ib Hezbollah, were implicated in a May 14 drone strike in Saudi Arabia, which was determined to have been staged from Iraqi territory. Shortly after September’s drone and missile attack on Saudi Arabia’s Abqaiq and Khurais oil production plants, Mahdi was forced to issue a swift denial that the attack had been launched from Iraq. On July 1, 2019, Mahdi issued a decree ordering the militias of the PMF to choose between full integration into the Iraqi armed forces or disarmament by July 31.