Ziad Jarrah

Ziad Jarrah was the was the hijacker-pilot of United Airlines Flight 93, crashed into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, but intended to be flown into the Capitol or White House as the fourth of the four 9/11 plane hijackings.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 14; 239 http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. After committing to carrying out a suicide operation, Shehhi underwent flight training in the United States in order to prepare for the attack.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 227, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. The flight’s hijackers reportedly used knives and the threat of a bomb to carry out the hijacking, forcing passengers to the back of the aircraft so that Jarrah could enter the cockpit and take control of the aircraft.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 13, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. However, because of a passenger revolt, Jarrah was ultimately unable to crash the plane into his intended target and instead drove it into the ground approximately 20 minutes outside of Washington, D.C., in an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 14, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

The 9/11 Commission Report summarizes Jarrah’s upbringing and some details regarding his path to radicalization. According to the report, Jarrah was born in Mazraa, Lebanon, to an affluent family.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 163, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. His father later reported that Jarrah had wanted to become a pilot since childhood, but that he had forbidden his son from pursuing such a career.Marcus Walker, James M. Dorsey, “A Student’s Dreams Or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800. In 1996, Jarrah graduated from a private Christian high school in Lebanon, and went to study German and then dentistry at a college in Greifswald, Germany.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 163, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
Marcus Walker, James M. Dorsey, “A Student’s Dreams Or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800.
Jarrah soon gained a reputation for partying and drinking, and began dating a woman named Aysel Senguen, who was the daughter of Turkish immigrants. Acquaintances report that he began to show signs of radicalization at the end of 1996, appearing more religiously conservative and reading brochures about jihad. In September of 1997, Jarrah relocated to Hamburg to study aircraft engineering at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg. He grew a beard and became more visibly devout, and although he continued to visit Senguen, he criticized her for her dress and for not being more religiously observant. In 1999, Jarrah told Senguen that he planned to wage jihad, and that there was no greater honor than to die for Allah.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 163, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

At some point during his time in Germany, Jarrah linked up with a group of Islamists who would later comprise the Hamburg contingent of the 9/11 plot, although the exact details of how they all met remain unclear.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 162, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. The group included hijacker-pilots Mohamed Atta (American Airlines Flight 11) and Marwan al-Shehhi (United Airlines Flight 175), as well as German-based Ramzi bin al-Shibh, a main facilitator of the plot. Jarrah likely met bin al-Shibh at the Quds mosque in Hamburg, which he began attending in 1997. Also belonging to the plotters’ social circle in Hamburg were fellow extremists Said Bahaji, Zakaria Essabar, Mounir el Motassadeq, and Abdelghani Mzoudi, some of whom were later found to have helped the cell as they planned and coordinated the attacks.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 164-165, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. Although Jarrah lived alone, three of the others from the extremist circle (Atta, Shehhi, and bin al-Shibh) shared an apartment, where they hosted discussions with the rest of their extremist social circle, including Jarrah, three to four times per week. In these discussions, they shared opinions later characterized by the 9/11 Commission as “extremely anti-American.”Marcus Walker, James M. Dorsey, “A Student’s Dreams Or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800;
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 162, 164, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.
During this time, the group became increasingly radical and secretive.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 165, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

At some point in 1999, four members of the Hamburg group—Jarrah, Atta, Shehhi, and bin al-Shibh—became committed to participating in violent jihad. The four decided to leave Germany to fight in Chechnya against the Russians, but were encouraged to travel to Afghanistan after a chance encounter with fellow extremist Khalid al Masri.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 165, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. According to bin al-Shibh, Masri connected the cell to an al-Qaeda contact in Duisburg, Germany—Mohamedou Ould Slahi—who recommended that the group travel to Afghanistan for training before traveling to Chechnya. Upon agreeing to Slahi’s suggestion, the group was instructed to obtain Pakistani visas and travel through Karachi to the Taliban’s office in Quetta.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 165-166, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

Shehhi, Atta, bin al-Shibh, and Jarrah left Germany for Afghanistan in November 1999. When the group arrived at the Taliban office in Quetta, they were shuttled to Kandahar and introduced to then-al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. According to findings from the 9/11 Commission, the four met privately with bin Laden, after which each of the four swore an oath of loyalty to bin Laden and volunteered to participate in a martyrdom mission. The group then met with al-Qaeda military commander Mohammed Atef, who told them that they had been assigned to a highly secretive mission. As the first part of the assignment, Atef instructed the group to return to Germany and enroll in flight training school. They were told that they would eventually be joined in their operation by fellow al-Qaeda operative Nawaf al Hazmi, who would help hijack American Airlines Flight 77.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 166; 242, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

Jarrah, Atta, and bin al-Shibh returned to Hamburg in early 2000. Before leaving Afghanistan, they met with 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM), who had first conceived of the plot—approved bin Laden in late 1998 or early 1999—to weaponize airplanes and crash them into buildings in the United States.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 149; 167, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. KSM gave instructions on how to evade government detection as well as more basic instructions on how live in the United States. Also before leaving Afghanistan, Jarrah filmed a so-called “martyrdom video” with Atta on January 18. The video was later released in October of 2006.Jim Popkin, “Video showing Atta, bin Laden is unearthed,” NBC News, October 1, 2006, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/15082633/ns/us_news-security/t/video-showing-atta-bin-laden-unearthed/#.WYDUTdMrLR0.

After leaving Afghanistan, Jarrah obtained a new passport, claiming that his old one had been lost. He returned to Lebanon, where he obtained a U.S. visa on May 25.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 167-8, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
Federal Bureau of Investigation, “9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” accessed July 7, 2017, 66, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.
During this time, the hijackers also made an effort to appear more assimilated in terms of their dress and behavior. According to the 9/11 Commission, Jarrah shaved his beard and according to Senguen, “acted much more the way he had when she first met him,” although he did not tell her anything about going to Afghanistan. Nonetheless, Jarrah’s family became concerned about his extremist tendencies, and his father even asked his cousin, who had been close to Jarrah since childhood, to intervene.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 167, 496, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. The 9/11 Commission notes that Jarrah was the only hijacker to maintain close contact with his family and remain in a relationship, which may have caused him some doubts about going through with the plot.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 168, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

The four al-Qaeda members began researching flight schools in Europe but ultimately decided to receive flight training in the United States, where flight schools were less expensive and required fewer training hours.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 167-168, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. The other members of the group also received new passports and visas, although bin al-Shibh’s visa request was denied and he was unable to travel to the United States with the other three.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 168, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. Bin al-Shibh was supposed to join Jarrah at the flight school that Jarrah would attend in Florida, but he was ultimately unable to do so, leaving Jarrah relatively on his own in the United States.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 225, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

Before arriving in the United States, Jarrah made arrangements to attend the Florida Flight Training Center (FFTC) in Venice, Florida. Jarrah flew from Dusseldorf to Newark on June 27, 2000, then traveled on to Florida.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 224, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
“9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 70, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.
In Florida, he began the private pilot program at the FFTC, moved in with some of the flight instructors at his school, and bought a car. In August, Jarrah obtained a private pilot certificate.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 224, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. In October, he returned to Germany to visit Senguen, taking a trip with her to Paris before returning to the United States.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 224, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
Federal Bureau of Investigation, “9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” accessed July 7, 2017, 94, 96, 99, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.
Jarrah continued to communicate with her through frequent phone calls and emails throughout his time in the United States.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 224-5, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. After returning to the United States, Jarrah received his instrument certificate from the Federal Aviation Authority in November and in December, received his commercial pilot license and began flight simulator training.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 227, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

Jarrah made multiple trips in the first few months of 2001. In late December 2000, Jarrah traveled to Lebanon. He returned to Florida via Germany in early January 2001, accompanied by Senguen.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 227, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
“9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 117, 119, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.
Reportedly wanting to verify that he was in fact in pilot training, Senguen stayed with him in Florida for ten days and even accompanied him to flight school.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 227, 522, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. On January 26, Jarrah returned to Lebanon to visit his sick father, where he stayed until mid-February.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 227, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
“9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 121, 125, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.
He then traveled to Germany, where he stayed with Senguen for a few days, before returning to the United States on February 25.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 227, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
Federal Bureau of Investigation, “9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” accessed July 7, 2017, 126, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.
At some point in mid-March, the 9/11 Commission reports that Jarrah stayed in Decatur, Georgia, for an unknown reason.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 229, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. On March 30, Jarrah returned to Germany to visit Senguen yet again, staying there until his return to Florida on April 13.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 229, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf;
Federal Bureau of Investigation, “9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” accessed July 7, 2017, 131, 134, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/.

Upon his return to the United States in April, Jarrah began renting an apartment in Hollywood, Florida, near where Atta and Shehhi were staying.Marcus Walker, James M. Dorsey, “A Student’s Dreams Or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800. He joined a gym“9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 136, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/. and obtained a Florida state driver’s license.“9/11 Chronology Part 01 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 140, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-01-of-02/. In early June, Jarrah flew from Ft. Lauderdale to Philadelphia to train at another flight school, Hortman Aviation, where he flew along the Hudson River near New York City with an instructor. The pilot hijackers each did reconnaissance flights in the early summer of 2001, traveling in first class to case their aircraft-types and determine the feasibility of bringing and using box cutters to hijack the plane. A few days after training at Hortman Aviation, Jarrah flew from Baltimore to Las Vegas via Los Angeles on a Boeing 757.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 242, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. In mid-June, Jarrah began renting another apartment in Florida with fellow United Airlines Flight 93 hijacker Ahmad al Haznawi.Marcus Walker, James M. Dorsey, “A Student’s Dreams Or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800.

Jarrah reportedly had a very strained relationship with Atta, the operational leader of the 9/11 attacks and hijacker-pilot of American Airlines Flight 11, which was a significant point of discussion when Atta traveled to Spain for a final meeting with bin al-Shibh in mid-July. Atta reportedly disapproved of Jarrah’s multiple family visits. Furthermore, because Jarrah had mostly been on his own while in the United States, he “felt excluded” from the decision-making process and “chafed under Atta’s authority over him,” according to the 9/11 Commission. KSM became concerned that Jarrah might back out of the operation, and at one point instructed funds to be sent to a potential substitute pilot, Zacarias Moussaoui, suggesting that he may have considered replacing Jarrah.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 246, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

On July 25, Jarrah traveled from Miami to Dusseldorf on a one-way ticket purchased by Senguen. Despite their disagreements, Atta reportedly drove him to the airport in Miami. After staying with Senguen for a few days in Germany, Jarrah met with bin al-Shibh, who convinced Jarrah not to withdraw from the operation.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 246, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. Jarrah returned to Miami on August 5.“9/11 Chronology Part 02 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 204-5, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-02-of-02/.

Jarrah, along with the other pilots, continued to take practice flights throughout August. On August 22, he purchased a GPS unit and aeronautical charts from a pilot shop in Miami.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 249, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. On August 30, Jarrah purchased his ticket for United Airlines Flight 93.“9/11 Chronology Part 02 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 246, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-02-of-02/. He also made a brief trip to Baltimore at the end of August, during which he obtained a Virginia state driver’s license.“9/11 Chronology Part 02 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 240, 246, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-02-of-02/. On September 7, Jarrah traveled from Ft. Lauderdale to Newark.“9/11 Chronology Part 02 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 265, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-02-of-02/. On September 8, records show that Jarrah made calls to Lebanon and Germany.“9/11 Chronology Part 02 of 02,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed July 7, 2017, 271, https://vault.fbi.gov/9-11%20Commission%20Report/9-11-chronology-part-02-of-02/. At some point, he also wrote what the 9/11 Commission called a “sentimental” farewell letter to Senguen.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 249, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. That night, he received a speeding ticket in Maryland on the way to joining the rest of the Flight 93 hijackers at their hotel.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 253, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, Ziad Jarrah made one last call to Senguen from his hotel room. She later reported that it was “not unusual.”National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 532, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. Jarrah and the three other hijackers of United Airlines Flight 93, bound for California, checked in at Newark International Airport between 7:03 and 7:39 a.m. They were ultimately able to clear the security checkpoint and board the plane by 7:48 a.m. without issue. Jarrah sat in seat 1B in the first-class cabin, closest to the cockpit.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 4, 10, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. United Airlines Flight 93 was scheduled to depart at 8:00 a.m., but did not take off until 8:42 a.m.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 10, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. At this point, American Airlines Flight 11 had already been hijacked, but the pilots of United Flight 93 did not receive a warning about the possibility of a cockpit intrusion until 9:24 a.m.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 10-11, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

The plane hijacking on United Airlines Flight 93 began at 9:28 a.m.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 12-13, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. According to reports from passengers and crew members who made calls before the plane crashed, the hijackers used knives and the threat of a bomb to carry out the hijacking, killing at least two members of the flight crew. As many passengers only reported seeing three hijackers, it is likely that Jarrah remained seated until passengers were forced to move to the back of the plane and he could enter the cockpit. After he took control of the aircraft, Jarrah inadvertently broadcasted a message to air traffic control that was intended for the passengers, claiming that there was a bomb on board.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 11, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

However, passengers making calls were able to learn about the other hijackings, and decided to stage a revolt. At 9:57 a.m., they launched a sustained assault on the cockpit in an attempt to retake the plane from the terrorists. Jarrah tried to disrupt the assault by violently pitching and rolling the aircraft, to no avail.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 12-13, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. The struggle in the cockpit could be heard over radio transmissions, as well as Jarrah’s shouts of “Allah is the greatest!” At 10:02 a.m., likely judging that the passengers would soon overtake them, the hijackers in the cockpit decided to crash the plane short of their intended target of either the Capitol or the White House. Jarrah crashed United Airlines Flight 93 into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 10:03 a.m.,National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 14, 33, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf. killing all 44 people on board.Sara Rimer, “A NATION CHALLENGED: THE PENNSYLVANIA CRASH; “44 Victims Are Remembered, and Lauded,” New York Times, September 18, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/18/us/a-nation-challenged-the-pennsylvania-crash-44-victims-are-remembered-and-lauded.html. The 9/11 attacks—including attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the thwarted attack headed for the White House or Capitol—left nearly 3,000 people dead in the single deadliest attack in U.S. history.National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 7, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf.

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