Moussa Mohammed Abu Marzouk

Moussa Mohammed Abu Marzouk is a member of Hamas’s political bureau who previously served as its deputy chair under former Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal.Associated Press, “AP Interview: Hamas No. 2 Rejects Gaza Arm Halt,” San Francisco Chronicle, November 24, 2012, http://web.archive.org/web/20121124150524/http://www.sfgate.com/news/world/article/AP-Interview-Hamas-No-2-rejects-Gaza-arms-halt-4063103.php; “Mousa Abu Marzook,” Hamas, accessed November 16, 2018, http://hamas.ps/en/politicalofficemember/24/mousa-abu-marzook. Marzouk has been an outspoken advocate of Hamas’s insistence on maintaining its weapons and the group’s refusal to recognize Israel.Associated Press, “AP Interview: Hamas No. 2 rejects Gaza arms halt,” San Francisco Gate, November 24, 2012, https://web.archive.org/web/20121124150524/http://www.sfgate.com/news/world/article/AP-Interview-Hamas-No-2-rejects-Gaza-arms-halt-4063103.php; Adnan Abu Amer, “Hamas’ Abu Marzouk says recognizing Israel a ‘red line,’” Al-Monitor, May 5, 2014, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/05/interview-abu-marzouk-hamas-israel-fatah-reconciliation.html. At one point, Marzouk had been considered as a replacement for Meshaal.Alon Diamant-Cohen, “Abu Marzouk said set to replace Mashaal as Hamas leader-in-exile,” Times of Israel, September 24, 2012, https://www.timesofisrael.com/abu-marzouk-said-set-to-replace-mashaal-as-hamas-leader-in-exile/. Marzouk lost a May 2017 Hamas election to replace Meshaal and has since continued to serve as a member of the group’s political bureau.“Ismail Haniyeh elected new Hamas chief,” Hurriyet Daily News, May 6, 2017, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/ismail-haniyeh-elected-new-hamas-chief-112803; “Mousa Abu Marzook,” Hamas, accessed November 16, 2018, http://hamas.ps/en/politicalofficemember/24/mousa-abu-marzook.

Marzouk coordinated and financed Hamas activities while living in the United States between 1988 and 1993. “Second Superseding Indictment,” United States District Court Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division, August 2, 2003, http://www.justice.gov/usao/iln/indict/2004/marzook_et_al.pdf. He operated numerous U.S. bank accounts from which he disbursed money to foreign accounts in support of Hamas's activities. “Second Superseding Indictment,” United States District Court Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division, August 2, 2003, http://www.justice.gov/usao/iln/indict/2004/marzook_et_al.pdf. He was also the director of the United Association for Studies and Research, which was tied to individuals attempting to fund Hamas's terror activities. Marzouk has been tied to numerous groups, such as the Holy Land Foundation and INFOCOM, which have allegedly played significant roles in funding Hamas.

In a 2012 interview with the Jewish publication the Forward, Marzouk remarked that Hamas would treat any agreement reached by Israel and the Palestinian Authority as a hudna, or “ceasefire,” and not a permanent agreement. Marzouk declared that “[Hamas would] not recognize Israel as a state.” The Forward’s Larry Cohler-Esses remarked that Marzouk used the interview as an opportunity to espouse Hamas ideology. Larry Cohler-Esses, “Hamas wouldn’t honor a treaty, top leader says,” Forward, April 1, 2012, http://forward.com/articles/155054/hamas-wouldn-t-honor-a-treaty-top-leader-says/?p=all.

The U.S. Department of Treasury designated Marzouk a Specially Designated Terrorist (SDT) in 1995, and a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) in 2003. Although he obtained a Green Card in 1990, Marzouk holds and is believed to travel on a Yemeni passport.Steven Greenhouse, “US Detains Arab Tied to Militants,” The New York Times, July 28, 1995, http://www.nytimes.com/1995/07/28/world/us-detains-arab-tied-to-militants.html. After years of traveling between the United States and the Middle East, Marzouk resided in New Cairo, Egypt as of 2012.“How Historic Interview was Arranged,” Forward, April 19, 2012, http://forward.com/articles/155056/how-historic-interview-was-arranged/. According to Hamas, Marzouk continues to move around Egypt, Qatar, and the Gaza Strip.Steven Greenhouse, “US Detains Arab Tied to Militants,” The New York Times, July 28, 1995, http://www.nytimes.com/1995/07/28/world/us-detains-arab-tied-to-militants.html; George Baghdadi, “Hamas is Still Defiant,” Time Magazine, December 10, 2001, http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,187759,00.html.

Between May 10 and May 21, 2021, Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad launched more than 4,000 rockets toward Israel, killing 12 and wounding more than 300.Aaron Boxerman and staff, “Hamas chief says war foils Israel’s attempts at Arab coexistence, normalization,” Times of Israel, May 21, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/hamas-chief-says-war-foils-israels-attempts-at-arab-coexistence-normalization/. Early in the conflict on May 12, Marzouk allegedly offered a ceasefire during a telephone conversation with Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov. Marzouk conditioned the ceasefire on Israel ending its military strikes on Gaza and on the international community pressuring Israel to end “military actions” at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.Staff and Aaron Boxerman, “Hamas official tells Russia: We’re ready for ceasefire with Israel,” Times of Israel, May 12, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/hamas-official-tells-russia-were-ready-for-ceasefire-with-israel/. Israel responded it was not interested in a ceasefire at the time. Speaking after with Hamas media, Marzouk said the Europeans were pressuring Hamas to stop firing short-range missiles at Israel. Marzouk said he told the Europeans Hamas would cease firing short-range missiles and use long-range missiles instead.Staff and Aaron Boxerman, “Hamas official tells Russia: We’re ready for ceasefire with Israel,” Times of Israel, May 12, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/hamas-official-tells-russia-were-ready-for-ceasefire-with-israel/. >As reports of a ceasefire emerged on May 20, Marzouk told the Lebanese Al-Mayadeen network he expected the ceasefire efforts to be successful, but Hamas would respond with “escalation for escalation.”Aaron Boxerman and staff, “Senior Hamas official: Ceasefire can be reached within ‘one or two days,’” Times of Israel, May 20, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/senior-hamas-official-ceasefire-can-be-reached-within-one-or-two-days/. A ceasefire went into effect on May 21.Aaron Boxerman and staff, “Hamas chief says war foils Israel’s attempts at Arab coexistence, normalization,” Times of Israel, May 21, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/hamas-chief-says-war-foils-israels-attempts-at-arab-coexistence-normalization/.

United States

The U.S. Department of Treasury designated Moussa Mohammed Abu Marzouk as a Specially Designated Terrorist (SDT) on August 29, 1995. “Resource Center: Sanctions,” U.S. Department of Treasury, August 29, 1995, http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/SDN-List/Documents/sdnew95.txt.

The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the U.S. Department of Treasury designated Moussa Mohammed Abu Marzouk as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) on August 21, 2003. “Resource Center: Recent OFAC Actions,” U.S. Department of Treasury, August 21, 2003, http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/OFAC-Enforcement/pages/20030821.aspx.

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