Ismail Haniyeh

Ismail Haniyeh is the chief of Hamas’s political bureau. He formerly served as deputy leader of Hamas between 2014 and 2017 and as Hamas’s prime minister in Gaza between 2007 and 2014.“Ismail Haniyeh elected new political head of Hamas,” Times of Israel, May 6, 2017, After Hamas and Fatah signed a reconciliation agreement in April 2014, Haniyeh stepped down as prime ministerJodi Rudoren and Isabel Kershner, “With Hope for Unity, Abbas Swears In a New Palestinian Government,” New York Times, June 2, 2014, and accepted the role as deputy leader of Hamas.Jodi Rudoren and Isabel Kershner, “Israel Warns Against Embracing Newly Reconciled Palestinian Government,” New York Times, June 1, 2014, Since then, Hamas has denied Palestinian Authority (PA) attempts to assert authority in Gaza—remaining in control of the coastal enclave.Jodi Rudoren and Isabel Kershner, “Palestinian Premier Says New Government Lacks Power in Gaza,” New York Times, June 12, 2014, Haniyeh has led Hamas since 2017.“Ismail Haniyeh elected new political head of Hamas,” Times of Israel, May 6, 2017, He remains based in Qatar, where he and other Hamas leaders are reportedly worth a combined $11 billion.Isabel Vincent and Benjamin Weinthal, “Hamas leaders worth staggering $11B revel in luxury — while Gaza’s people suffer,” New York Post, November 7, 2023, Haniyeh reportedly played a role in planning Hamas’s October 7, 2023, attack on Israel, which killed 1,200 people.Summer Goodkind, “Top Hamas military commander claims October 7 attacks were never meant to target Israeli civilians as he breaks ranks to criticise terror group’s leaders ‘who changed the plan last-minute’ in extraordinary intervention,” Daily Mail (London), November 5, 2023,

Hamas’s Shura Council elected Haniyeh the new chief of Hamas’s political bureau on May 6, 2017. He replaced Khaled Meshaal, who had held the position for two terms since 2004.“Ismail Haniyeh elected new political head of Hamas,” Times of Israel, May 6, 2017, The day following the May 2017 election, Haniyeh received a congratulatory phone call from Qatari Foreign Minister Sheikh Mohammad Bin Abdul Rahman Al Thani, affirming continued Qatari support, according to Hamas.“Qatar's Foreign Minister congratulates Haniyeh on his election win as head of Hamas,” Hamas website, May 7, 2017,

Haniyeh has long advocated a political role for Hamas, resulting in his ascension to prime minister of the PA in 2006 when the group joined Palestinian politics before violently assuming control over Gaza the following year. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas fired Haniyeh as prime minister in June 2007 following clashes between Hamas and Fatah forces. Haniyeh refused to accept his dismissal and instead expelled Fatah and the PA from Gaza.J Conal Urquart, Ian Black, and Mark Tran, “Hamas Takes Control of Gaza,” Guardian, June 15, 2007,;
“Abbas Sacks Hamas-Led Government,” BBC News, June 15, 2007,
That same month, Hamas established its own government to rule Gaza with Haniyeh as prime minister. The Hamas government remained separate from the PA, maintaining its own security control over Gaza in opposition to both the PA and Israel. Haniyeh remained prime minister of Gaza until a 2014 reconciliation agreement between Hamas and Fatah, after which Haniyeh became Hamas’s deputy political leader.Jodi Rudoren and Isabel Kershner, “Israel Warns Against Embracing Newly Reconciled Palestinian Government,” New York Times, June 1, 2014,

Haniyeh has operated out of the Gaza Strip since assuming the role of Palestinian prime minister in 2006. Hamas has not revealed whether Haniyeh will relocate to Qatar as head of the group’s political bureau, though Hamas’s top political leaders have largely chosen to reside outside of Gaza to avoid restrictions on movement. Meshaal has resided in Doha, Qatar, since 2012, when Hamas’s leadership fled from Syria.“Hamas Political Chiefs Exit Syria,” BBC News, February 28, 2012, Haniyeh left Gaza in late 2016 to perform the traditional Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca and visit Meshaal in Qatar, sparking speculation that he would relocate to Qatar in anticipation of assuming leadership of Hamas’s politbureau. Hamas quashed the rumors and stated that Haniyeh would return to Gaza.Adam Rasgon, “Hamas  Leader: Haniyeh to Return to Gaza After Qatar Stint,” Jerusalem Post, November 22, 2016, Following Haniyeh’s May 2017 election, the New York Times reported that Haniyeh would move to Qatar.Isabel Kershner and Majd Al Waheidi, “Hamas Picks Ismail Haniya as Leader as Power Balance Shifts to Gaza,” New York Times, May 6, 2017, However, Haaretz later reported that Haniyeh intends to travel between Gaza and Qatar, though that is largely dependent on Egypt allowing him to exit the territory.Jack Khoury, “Analysis No Reconciliation in Sight: Abbas’ Team Is Unenthused by Hamas’ New Leadership,” Haaretz (Jerusalem), May 7, 2017,

In his outgoing speech, Meshaal said that Haniyeh and Hamas’s political bureau would continue to focus on the “key” issues of “liberation, Jerusalem, prisoners, right of refugees, lifting the siege imposed on Gaza, and achieving internal unity.”“Khalid Meshal's speech during the inauguration of the new head of Hamas political bureau, Ismail Haniya ( an excerpt),” Hamas website, May 6, 2017,

After assuming the leadership of Hamas, Haniyeh did not leave the Gaza Strip again until December 2019 when he led a Hamas delegation on a multi-national tour. Haniyeh held high-level meetings in Turkey and Qatar. Days after his December 8 meeting with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, British media reported that Hamas has continued to plan terrorist attacks from a base in Istanbul with the knowledge of the Turkish government. The delegation announced it also planned to visit Malaysia, Russia, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Kuwait. While in Istanbul, Haniyeh told Turkish media that he is also trying to strengthen Hamas’s relationship with Iran.Raf Sanchez, “Exclusive: Hamas plots attacks on Israel from Turkey as Erdogan turns blind eye,” Telegraph (London), December 17, 2019,; “Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh visits Turkey, meets with Erdogan,” Jerusalem Post, December 15, 2019,; Seth J. Frantzman, “Turkey and Qatar give warm embrace to Hamas leaders,” Jerusalem Post, December 17, 2019,

Haniyeh traveled to Iran the following month to attend the funeral of Qasem Soleimani, the commander of the Quds Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps who died in a U.S. airstrike on January 3, 2020. Haniyeh was only one of a handful of people to speak at the funeral. He praised Iran and pledged that the Palestinian resistance would continue. Haniyeh also stood close to Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, signaling that Hamas was attempting to restore its relations with Iran. Prior to the funeral, Haniyeh made a condolence call to Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, who pledged that Iran would continue to back “the Palestinian people’s rights and resistance in defense of its land and holy sites.”“Hamas leader praises Soleimani at Tehran funeral in show of support for Iran,” Times of Israel, January 6, 2020, Haniyeh also met with Ismail Ghaani, Soleimani’s replacement as head of the Quds Force. The visit to Tehran reportedly infuriated the Egyptian government, which expressly forbade Haniyeh from visiting Iran on his trip abroad.Adam Rasgon, “Egypt reportedly simmers over Hamas chief’s trip to Iran,” Times of Israel, January 7, 2020,

In early February 2020, unconfirmed reports claimed that Egypt had prevented Haniyeh from returning to the Gaza Strip through the Rafah border crossing, leaving Haniyeh to settle in Qatar. Senior Hamas official Khalil al-Hayya later stated that Haniyeh would remain outside the Gaza Strip for at least six months.Khaled Abu Toameh, “Hamas leader Haniyeh decides to settle in Qatar – report,” Jerusalem Post, February 2, 2020, Later that month, Hamas confirmed that Haniyeh would settle in Doha, Qatar, for the immediate future in order to continue traveling freely through the end of 2020 or early 2021.Ahmed Fouad, “Egypt may find Gaza more appealing without Haniyeh,” Al-Monitor, February 25, 2020, Haniyeh continued to exercise this freedom of movement throughout 2020. On August 22, Haniyeh again met with Erdoğan, a move that led the U.S. State Department to raise “concerns about the Turkish government’s relationship with Hamas at the highest levels.”Joseph Haboush, “US Criticizes Erdogan for Meeting with Hamas Leadership, Warns of Turkish Isolation,” Al Arabiya, August 25, 2020, In September, Haniyeh met with Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah in Lebanon. The two leaders reaffirmed the “stability” of the “axis of resistance” against Israel and discussed regional developments such as the previous month’s announcement of formal ties between Israel and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Haniyeh and Nasrallah jointly condemned Arab normalization with Israel. Haniyeh also visited Lebanon’s Ain al-Hilweh Palestinian refugee camp and announced Hamas possessed rockets capable of reaching Tel Aviv.“Hamas and Hezbollah leaders meet in Lebanon,” Middle East Eye, September 6, 2020, In October 2020, Haniyeh conveyed his “absolute rejection” to the restoration of diplomatic ties between the UAE and Israel in a phone call with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas.Stephen Farrell, “Israel Hails UAE Deal but Palestinians - and Settlers – Dismayed,” Reuters, August 13, 2020,

Hamas holds internal elections every four years. Ahead of its 2021 elections, there were reports Meshaal was considering ousting Haniyeh and reclaiming his role as Hamas’s chief political leader. In April 2021, however, Hamas announced Meshaal would take over as leader of the group’s foreign office and become its deputy leader.Aaron Boxerman, “Khaled Mashaal tapped as Hamas’s diaspora director,” Times of Israel, April 12, 2021, On August 1, 2021, Hamas announced Haniyeh had been elected to a second term as the group’s political chief.Nidal Al-mughrabi, “Haniyeh re-elected as chief of Palestinian Islamist group Hamas,” Reuters, August 1, 2021,

Haniyeh continues to reside in Qatar, where he, Meshaal, and senior Hamas political leader Moussa Abu Marzouk are reportedly worth a combined $11 billion. Hamas’s leaders maintain offices as well as freedom of movement in Qatar. They have been photographed at luxury hotels, on private jets, and at diplomatic clubs around Qatar’s capital of Doha.Isabel Vincent and Benjamin Weinthal, “Hamas leaders worth staggering $11B revel in luxury — while Gaza’s people suffer,” New York Post, November 7, 2023, Haniyeh also makes frequent trips to Iran, which he said is Hamas’s largest financial supporter. In a January 2022 interview with Al Jazeera, Haniyeh revealed Iran had given Hamas $70 million for missiles and defense systems. He praised multiple countries for aiding Hamas but said Iran was the biggest donor.“Iran Funded Hamas Missiles With $70 Million, Haniyeh Says,” Iran International, March 1, 2022,

On July 3, 2023, PA President Mahmoud Abbas called for reconciliation talks between 14 Palestinian factions to end the rift between the factions and create unity in Palestinian governance. Prior to the meeting, Haniyeh demanded Abbas end security cooperation with Israel and restructure the Palestine Liberation Organization, the umbrella organization that includes most Palestinian factions except Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad. On July 30, Haniyeh and Abbas met in El Alamein, Egypt, with the leaders of the other Palestinian factions. Haniyeh praised “comprehensive resistance” to Israel, while Abbas reiterated his commitment to “peaceful popular resistance.”“Palestinian rival governments form ‘reconciliation committee,’” Al Jazeera, July 30, 2023, In his address to the conference, Haniyeh called for Palestinians to exploit political turmoil in Israel. He also called for “a new, inclusive parliament … formed on the basis of free democratic elections.”“Palestinian rival governments form ‘reconciliation committee,’” Al Jazeera, July 30, 2023,; Gianluca Pacchiani and Associated Press, “ At Egypt summit with Fatah, Hamas chief calls to exploit Israeli ‘internal divisions,’” Times of Israel, July 30, 2023, The leaders agreed to form a committee on intra-Palestinian reconciliation.“Palestinian rival governments form ‘reconciliation committee,’” Al Jazeera, July 30, 2023,

On October 7, 2023, Hamas launched a mass attack on Israel, sending hundreds of fighters into Israeli towns and military bases within 15 miles of the Gaza border while simultaneously launching a rocket barrage toward Israel.Josef Federman and Issam Adwan, “Hamas surprise attack out of Gaza stuns Israel and leaves hundreds dead in fighting, retaliation,” Associated Press, October 7, 2023,; Josef Federman and Issam Adwan, “Hamas surprise attack out of Gaza stuns Israel and leaves hundreds dead in fighting, retaliation,” Associated Press, October 7, 2023, Hamas labeled the attack Operation Al-Aqsa Flood.“Operation Al Aqsa Flood,” Hamas Online, Telegram, October 7, 2023. Haniyeh and other Hamas officials watched the attack unfold from Haniyeh’s office in Doha. Haniyeh then issued a press statement calling the attack a response to Israeli crimes after several warnings by Hamas. While watching the news reports, Haniyeh and other leaders reportedly cheered with joy and then prostrated themselves in gratitude before God. Haniyeh praised the attack as the start of a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.Matt Drake, “How Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh watched attack on Israel on TV from his office in Qatar as he celebrated with other officials,” Daily Mail (London), October 8, 2023,; Hamas Online, Telegram, October 7, 2023. Written orders recovered from the bodies of dead Hamas fighters as well as video testimonials of Hamas attackers showed that Hamas fighters had been directed to kill as many people as possible. These orders contradicted statements from Hamas leaders that the terrorist group targeted only soldiers.Dov Lieber and David S. Cloud, “Hamas Fighters’ Orders: ‘Kill as Many People as Possible,’” Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2023, Hamas killed more than 1,200 Israelis in the attack and took hostage approximately 240 Israeli civilians and soldiers in Gaza.Peter Saidel and Dov Lieber, “Hamas Took More Than 200 Hostages From Israel. Here’s What to Know.,” Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2023,; Lauren Frayer, “Israel revises down its death toll from the Oct. 7 Hamas attacks to about 1,200,” NPR, November 11, 2023, Qatar has sought to negotiate a prisoner exchange for the release of Hamas’s hostages. On November 16, Haniyeh declared Hamas would release Israeli hostages only under its own conditions.“Israeli captives to be released on Hamas conditions: Haniyeh,” Al Mayadeen, November 16, 2023,

Following the attack, Israel issued an official declaration of war against Hamas and vowed to cripple the terrorist organization.Tia Goldenberg and Wafaa Shurafa, “Israel declares war, bombards Gaza and battles to dislodge Hamas fighters after surprise attack,” Associated Press, October 8, 2023, Haniyeh has subsequently called on the United Nations to condemn Israel. An October 14 letter by Haniyeh to U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres accused Israel of war crimes in Gaza, including violations of the Geneva Conventions and other international laws. Haniyeh called on Guterres to pressure Israel to allow humanitarian aid into Gaza.Hamas Online, Telegram, October 14, 2023. Haniyeh has accused Israel of carrying out “barbaric massacres” against Palestinian civilians in Gaza.“Hamas leader accuses Israel of ‘barbaric massacres’ after refugee camp hit,” Al Jazeera, November 1, 2023,

Haniyeh’s level of involvement in planning October 7 is a point of contention. In a November 2023 report from the United Kingdom’s Daily Mail newspaper, a senior Hamas commander accused Haniyeh and Hamas’s Gaza leader, Yahya Sinwar, of changing the plan for October 7 at the last minute and inviting a devastating Israeli retaliation. According to the battalion commander, who identified himself only as Abu Mohammed, Hamas had originally planned only to kill Israeli soldiers and take some soldiers hostage. They had not planned to kill civilians. Abu Mohammed claimed that he was one of the planners of October 7, but Haniyeh and Sinwar changed the plan and told fighters to “do what they like.”Summer Goodkind, “Top Hamas military commander claims October 7 attacks were never meant to target Israeli civilians as he breaks ranks to criticise terror group’s leaders ‘who changed the plan last-minute’ in extraordinary intervention,” Daily Mail (London), November 5, 2023, Abu Mohammed accused the Hamas leadership abroad of not bearing the consequences for October 7 like the people of Gaza did.Summer Goodkind, “Top Hamas military commander claims October 7 attacks were never meant to target Israeli civilians as he breaks ranks to criticise terror group’s leaders ‘who changed the plan last-minute’ in extraordinary intervention,” Daily Mail (London), November 5, 2023, Citing Palestinian sources, a March 2024 report by Sky News Arabia claimed the Hamas leadership had criticized Sinwar for launching the October 7 attack without consulting Hamas’s political leaders, who were ignorant of the decision.“Yahya Sinwar decided to launch October 7 attack alone, angering Hamas leaders – report,” Jerusalem Post, March 5, 2024,

On November 4, Israel reportedly bombed Haniyeh’s home in the Al-Shathi neighborhood in northern Gaza. There were no immediate reports of casualties.“IDF said to bomb Gaza house of Hamas chief Haniyeh,” Times of Israel, November 4, 2023, The Israeli military did not confirm the strike. On November 16, Israel confirmed it had bombed Haniyeh’s Gaza home in a new strike. According to the IDF, Hamas used the home “as terror infrastructure and, among other things, as a meeting place for the senior officials of the organization.”Emanuel Fabian, “Israeli jet bombs Gaza home of exiled Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh,” Times of Israel, November 16, 2023, Haniyeh remained in Qatar, where he continued to meet with Qatari and Iranian officials as well shuttle back and forth to Iran. On October 14, Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian met with Haniyeh in Doha. According to a Hamas press release, the two agreed to “continue cooperation to fully achieve the goals of Hamas and the Palestinian people.Tzvi Joffre, “Iranian FM, Hamas leader Haniyeh agree to ‘continue cooperation,’” Jerusalem Post, October 15, 2023, Haniyeh met again with Amir-Abdollahian in Qatar on October 31.“Iran’s FM Meets With Hamas Leader In Qatar,” Iran International, October 31, 2023, On November 4, Haniyeh joined with his predecessor Khaled Meshaal in Qatar to meet with Maulana Fazlur Rehman, leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazl (JUI-F). Haniyeh called on the Islamic ummah (community) to united against Israel.“Hamas chief appeals for Ummah support,” Express Tribune (Karachi), November 5, 2023, Iranian media reported on November 5 that Haniyeh had met recently with Khamenei in Tehran, though reports did not mention an exact date. According to press reports, Khamenei reiterated Iran’s support for the Palestinians.“Iranian state media confirm meeting between Khamenei, Hamas' Haniyeh in Tehran,” Reuters, November 5, 2023,

Hamas agreed to a short-lived ceasefire on November 24, 2023. Negotiated by Qatar and Egypt, the agreement saw the release of 75 hostages in exchange for the release of dozens of Palestinian security prisoners. The ceasefire ended on December 1 following a November 30 Hamas shooting attack in Jerusalem and rocket fire.Jason Burke, “Hamas releases 24 hostages on first day of Gaza ceasefire,” Guardian (London), November 24, 2023,; Nidal Al-Mughrabi and Suhaib Salem, “Scores reported killed in Gaza after Israel-Hamas truce collapses,” Reuters, December 1, 2023,; Emanuel Fabian, “IDF: We hit 200 Gaza targets since Hamas ceasefire violation; 50 rockets fired at Israel,” Times of Israel, December 1, 2023,; “Live updates | Israel and Hamas trade blame for cease-fire’s end as combat resumes,” Associated Press, December 1, 2023, On January 2, 2024, Reuters reported that Haniyeh had reiterated to Qatari and Egyptian mediators that Hamas would only release further hostages “under the resistance's conditions.”“Haniyeh says Hamas has delivered its position to Qatar and Egypt,” Reuters, January 2, 2024,

Haniyeh continued to represent Hamas in ceasefire negotiations in Cairo under Egyptian and Qatari auspices. Divisions emerged between Hamas’s political and military leadership over the terms of an agreement. In late January 2024, intelligence chiefs from the United States, Israel, Egypt, and Qatar agreed to a framework agreement for a six-week ceasefire that would see Hamas release multiple hostages. According to a February 2, 2024, Wall Street Journal report, Sinwar favored a six-week pause in the war, while Haniyeh reportedly sought a permanent ceasefire with a plan to rebuild Gaza. Hamas’s political leaders sought the release of almost 3,000 Palestinian prisoners from Israel, including those directly involved in violent attacks.Jared Malsin and Summer Said, “Hamas Divisions Over U.S.-Backed Cease-Fire Proposal Stall Negotiations,” Wall Street Journal, February 2, 2024,

Backed by the United States, Qatar and Egypt have continued to push for ceasefire discussions. On March 7, 2024, Hamas withdrew from discussions after Sinwar demanded Israel commit to discussing a permanent end to the war. Haniyeh reportedly favored a six-week pause in fighting. According to Egyptian officials cited by the Wall Street Journal, Sinwar believed Hamas had an advantage over Israel because of growing political divisions in Israel.Summer Said, Margherita Stancati, and Anat Peled, “Hamas Leaves Gaza Talks With No Cease-Fire Deal,” Wall Street Journal, March 7, 2024, Haniyeh blamed Israel for the breakdown in talks. He added that Hamas remained open to a ceasefire, but Israel must accept a permanent ceasefire and full withdrawal of its forces from Gaza. Haniyeh also said that Hamas was willing to join a Palestinian Authority unity government with Fatah.Nidal Al-Mughrabi, “Hamas chief blames Israel for stalled ceasefire talks, leaves door open,” Reuters, March 10, 2024,

Haniyeh made his second trip to Iran in March 2024 to thank Khamenei for Iran’s continued support. The trip coincided with a U.N. Security Council resolution calling for a ceasefire in Gaza. Haniyeh praised the resolution but said there needs to be a permanent ceasefire. While in Tehran, Haniyeh called the October 7 attack a “turning point” for the Palestinians as they enter a new phase in their war against Israel.“Hamas Leader Thanks Iran For Support During Tehran Visit,” Iran International, March 26, 2024, Citing the United States’ refusal to veto the Security Council resolution, Haniyeh praised Israel’s “unprecedented political isolation.”Agence France-Presse, “Hamas leader speaks in Iran of Israel’s ‘political isolation,’” Voice of America, March 26, 2024,

While Haniyeh remains based in Qatar, Israel has targeted members of his family in Gaza. On April 1, 2024, Israeli forces reportedly arrested Haniyeh’s sister Sabah Avad al-Salam Haniyeh on suspicion of contact with Hamas operatives and supporting acts of terror.“Police arrest sister of Hamas leader Haniyeh in southern Israel raid,” Times of Israel, April 1, 2024, On April 10, 2024, three of Haniyeh’s sons were reportedly killed by an Israeli drone-launched missile in Gaza while in a car on their way to an Eid al-Fitr celebration. Haniyeh told Al Jazeera that Hamas would not surrender or temper its demands. He further praised God for “bestowing upon us the honor of their martyrdom.”Gianluca Pacchiani, “Hamas leader Haniyeh thankful for the ‘honor of martyrdom’ granted to his sons,” Times of Israel, April 10, 2024, According to Hamas media, the strike also killed two of Haniyeh’s grandchildren and wounded another. Israeli security services confirmed the strike and accused Haniyeh’s sons of being Hamas operatives “en route to carry out terror activity in the area of central Gaza.”Emanuel Fabian, “IDF, Shin Bet confirm killing Haniyeh’s sons, say the three were Hamas operatives,” Times of Israel, April 10, 2024,

Also Known As

Extremist entity
Type(s) of Organization:
Political, religious, social service provider, terrorist, violent
Ideologies and Affiliations:
Islamist, jihadist, Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated group, pan-Islamist, Qutbist, Sunni
Chief of Political Bureau, former deputy leader of Hamas, Hamas’s former prime minister of Gaza, former prime minister of the Palestinian Authority

Hamas is a U.S.-designated terrorist organization which has killed hundreds of Israeli citizens, as well as Americans, in suicide bombings and other terrorist attacks. Hamas has governed the Gaza Strip since it violently expelled the Palestinian Authority in 2007. 

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We reiterate once again that the brigades will directly target US bases across the region in case the US enemy commits a folly and decides to strike our resistance fighters and their camps [in Iraq].

Abu Ali al-Askari, Kata’ib Hezbollah (KH) Security Official Mar. 2023
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