Amrozi bin Nurhasyim

Amrozi bin Nurhasyim was an Indonesian-born perpetrator of the October 2002 Bali bombings that killed 202 people and injured more than 200 others.“Profile: Amrozi,” BBC News, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2632043.stm;
Agence France-Presse, “Mastermind Muklas sentenced to firing squad,” Sydney Morning Herald, October 2, 2003, http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/10/02/1064988317681.html;
U.S. victims of 2002 Bali bombing remembered as ceremonies held worldwide to mark 10th anniversary,” Daily Mail (London), October 12, 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2216949/U-S-victims-2002-Bali-bombing-remembered-ceremonies-held-worldwide-mark-10th-anniversary.html.
His older brother, Huda bin Abdul Haq, was the mastermind of the attack and a key operative of the al-Qaeda-linked Indonesian terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), and his youngest brother, Ali Imron, was also convicted for his involvement in the attacks and sentenced to life in prison.“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm#Amrozi;
‘Remorseful’ Bali bomber gets life sentence,” Guardian (London), September 18, 2003, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/sep/18/indonesia.australia.
Bin Nurhasyim purchased the minivan and the explosives used in the attacks.William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 8, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf;
“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm.
He was convicted for his assistance in the bombings and executed by firing squad on November 8, 2008, along with bin Abdul Haq and a third conspirator, Imam Samudra.Sadie Gray, “Three Bali bombers executed by firing squad at midnight,” Independent (London), November 9, 2008, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/three-bali-bombers-executed-by-firing-squad-at-midnight-1003970.html;
“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm.

Bin Nurhasyim was from the village of Tenggulun in East Java, Indonesia.Matthew Moore, “Key Bali bombing suspects arrested,” Age (Melbourne), January 15, 2003, http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/01/14/1042520616053.html. He attended Al Islam boarding school in Tenggulun.Paul Toohey, “Al Islam boarding school in Indonesia continues to promote jihad,” News.com.au, November 8, 2014, http://www.news.com.au/world/asia/al-islam-boarding-school-in-indonesia-continues-to-promote-jihad/news-story/ead081588c3c22bd721cf0e7f58532a5. Bin Nurhasyim, a mechanic by trade, reportedly traveled to Malaysia in the 1980s in search of work. While in Malaysia, he reportedly reunited with his older brother bin Abul Haq and studied at an Islamic school where bin Abdul Haq, Samudra and radical Indonesian cleric Abu Bakar Bashir allegedly taught.“Profile: Amrozi,” BBC News, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2632043.stm;
“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm#Amrozi.
According to neighbors, bin Nurhasyim returned to his home village of Tenggulun in Indonesia in 1991 and appeared to be more religiously observant.“Profile: Amrozi,” BBC News, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2632043.stm.

Bin Nurhasyim played a significant role in the preparation of the Bali bombing attacks by purchasing many of the necessary materials. Bin Nurhasyim and two accomplices purchased a brand-new Yamaha motorbike from a dealership that they would use for transportation in the attack.William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 12, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf. He also purchased the explosives and chemicals used in the bombs and the minivan that would be used as transportation and as a suicide vehicle in the attack.William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 8, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf;
“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm.
Bin Nurhasyim was reportedly known to authorities as a member of JI before the bombings.William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 8, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf.

On October 12, 2002, two bombs exploded in Kuta, a popular tourist area in Bali, killing 202 people and injured more than 200 others.Agence France-Presse, “Mastermind Muklas sentenced to firing squad,” Sydney Morning Herald, October 2, 2003, http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/10/02/1064988317681.html;
“U.S. victims of 2002 Bali bombing remembered as ceremonies held worldwide to mark 10th anniversary,” Daily Mail (London), October 12, 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2216949/U-S-victims-2002-Bali-bombing-remembered-ceremonies-held-worldwide-mark-10th-anniversary.html.
The planners had recruited two young Indonesian boys to detonate the bombs, one of whom detonated his suicide vest in Paddy’s Irish Bar while the other set off explosives in a van outside of Sari Club.“Timeline: Bali bomb trials,” BBC News, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3126241.stm;
Kelly McEvers, “The Terrorist’s Wife,” Slate, November 1, 2005, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2005/the_terrorists_wife/how_paridah_met_mukhlas.html.
A third, smaller bomb was remotely detonated near the U.S. Consulate in Bali, though no one was hurt.“Timeline: Bali bomb trials,” BBC News, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3126241.stm.

During the investigation into the 2002 Bali bombings, police traced the van used in the attack back to bin Nurhasyim, which led them to his hometown in Java.“Timeline: Bali bomb trials,” BBC News, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3126241.stm;
Kelly McEvers, “The Terrorist’s Wife,” Slate, November 1, 2005, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2005/the_terrorists_wife/visiting_the_space_where_the_sari_club_used_to_be.html.
He was arrested at his home in Tenggulun on November 7, 2002, and confessed to purchasing the minivan used in the blast outside of Sari Club and buying the chemicals used for the explosives.“Amrozi: Bali’s ‘smiling bomber,’” CNN, February 26, 2004, http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/08/07/amrozi.profile/;
William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 9, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf.
When authorities searched his residence, they found bomb ingredients, receipts for these ingredients, and jihadist propaganda materials, including speeches by Osama bin Laden and Indonesian radical cleric Abu Bakar Bashir. Authorities also seized his mobile phone, which they used to track down other suspects in the bombing.William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 9, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf. While in custody, bin Nurhaysim revealed the names of others involved in the bombing and reportedly told journalists that the attack was designed to kill as many Americans as possible, but was disappointed that the majority of those killed were Australians.“Amrozi: Bali’s ‘smiling bomber’,” CNN, February 26, 2004, http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/08/07/amrozi.profile/;
William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 9, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf.

Bin Nurhasyim was charged with helping to plan the attacks and purchasing the van and chemicals used in the bombings, and went on trial in May 2003.“Timeline: Bali bomb trials,” BBC, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3126241.stm;
William M. Wise, “Indonesia’s War on Terror,” United States – Indonesia Society, August 2005, 37, https://www.webcitation.org/5rAFxSKAn?url=http://www.usindo.org/publications/reports/pdf/WarOnTerror.pdf.
Prosecutors in the case said that bin Nurhasyim admitted to meeting with Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) founder and jailed radical cleric Abu Bakar Bashir. However, Bin Nurhasyim maintained that he was not a member of JI and only participated in the attack to avenge the perceived persecution of Muslims around the world.“Amrozi: Bali’s ‘smiling bomber’,” CNN, February 26, 2004, http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/08/07/amrozi.profile/.

On August 7, 2003, bin Nurhasyim was found guilty of aiding in the planning and execution of the 2002 Bali bombings and was sentenced to death by firing squad.“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm#Amrozi. In 2006, lawyers for bin Nurhasyim, bin Abdul Haq and Samudra began to file a series of appeals—including an appeal on their death sentences and an appeal of the mode of execution, arguing that beheading was more humane.“Timeline: Bali bomb trials,” BBC, November 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3126241.stm;
Kelly McEvers, “The Terrorist’s Wife,” Slate, November 1, 2005, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2005/the_terrorists_wife/how_paridah_met_mukhlas.html.
The appeals stalled the executions, but were ultimately unsuccessful.“The Bali bombing plotters,” BBC News, March 10, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2385323.stm#Amrozi.

On May 12, 2008, while detained at Nusakamanbangan prison, bin Nurhasyim was married for the fourth time in a “virtual ceremony” conducted in his home village of Tenggulun in east Java.Geoff Thompson, “’Virtual wedding ceremony’ for Bali bomber Amrozi,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, May 12, 2008, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-05-12/virtual-wedding-ceremony-for-bali-bomber-amrozi/2433544. According to his lawyer, bin Nurhasyim was remarried to his first wife Rahma and his brother stood in his place, as officials did not grant permission for a wedding in the prison.Geoff Thompson, “’Virtual wedding ceremony’ for Bali bomber Amrozi,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, May 12, 2008, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-05-12/virtual-wedding-ceremony-for-bali-bomber-amrozi/2433544.

On November 8, 2008, bin Nurhasyim, bin Abdul Haq, and Samudra were executed by firing squad on the prison island of Nusakambangan.Sadie Gray, “Three Bali bombers executed by firing squad at midnight,” Independent (London), November 9, 2008, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/three-bali-bombers-executed-by-firing-squad-at-midnight-1003970.html.

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