Yusuf al-Qaradawi is a Qatar-based Islamist theologian and the unofficial chief ideologue of the Muslim Brotherhood.“Al-Qaradawi turns down top Brotherhood post,” Al Jazeera, January 12, 2004, http://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2004/01/2008410145045889729.html. Through his writings, speeches, and fatwas, Qaradawi has called for the murder of Americans, gay people, and Jews.Melanie Phillips, The World Turned Upside Down, (New York: Encounter Books, 2010), 214; “Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi: Homosexuals Should Be Punished Like Fornicators But Their Harm Is Less When Not Done in Public,” MEMRI, June 5, 2006, http://www.memri.org/clip_transcript/en/1170.htm. He has served as the chairman of numerous Islamic organizations and operated on a variety of media platforms, including a televised broadcast on Al Jazeera, which reached approximately 60 million viewers.Alexander Smoltczyk, “Islam's Spiritual 'Dear Abby': The Voice of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood,” Spiegel, February 15, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/islam-s-spiritual-dear-abby-the-voice-of-egypt-s-muslim-brotherhood-a-745526.html. He is a co-founder of the popular Islamic website IslamOnline.net, which features a larger number of his fatwas.“Yusuf al-Qaradawi,” Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs, accessed May 6, 2016, http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/people/yusuf-al-qaradawi. Qaradawi has written more than 120 books,Alexander Smoltczyk, “Islam's Spiritual 'Dear Abby': The Voice of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood,” Spiegel Online, February 15, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/islam-s-spiritual-dear-abby-the-voice-of-egypt-s-muslim-brotherhood-a-745526.html. some of which are included in the Muslim Brotherhood’s educational curriculum.“Sheik Yusuf al-Qaradawi: Theologian of Terror,” Anti-Defamation League, March 15, 2011, http://archive.adl.org/nr/exeres/788c5421-70e3-4e4d-bff4-9be14e4a2e58,db7611a2-02cd-43af-8147-649e26813571,frameless.html.
As head of the Ireland-based European Council for Fatwas and Research (ECFR) and, until November 2018, president of the International Union of Islamic Scholars (IUMS), Qaradawi has used his influence to promote extreme positions justifying violent terrorism. Qaradawi has defended suicide bombings as “the supreme form of Jihad … that is allowed by the Shari’a” and “heroic operations of martyrdom.”“Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi in London to Establish ‘The International Council of Muslim Clerics,’” MEMRI, July 8, 2004, http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/1168.htm#_edn2. He has called for the murder of U.S. citizens in Iraq“Reactions to Sheikh Qaradhawi’s Fatwa Calling for the Abduction and Killing of American Civilians in Iraq,” MEMRI, October 6, 2004, http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/1231.htm. and for Muslims around the world to travel to Syria to take up arms in defense of Bashar al-Assad. Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain added the IUMS to its collective terrorism list in February 2017 for the group’s “work to promote terrorism through the exploitation of Islamic discourse, which they use as cover to carry out various terrorist activities.”“Saudi-led bloc blacklist scholars' union, individuals as terrorists in Qatar boycott,” Daily Sabah (Istanbul), November 23, 2017, https://www.dailysabah.com/mideast/2017/11/23/saudi-led-bloc-blacklist-scholars-union-individuals-as-terrorists-in-qatar-boycott. According to his website, Qaradawi has “called on all those able to undertake jihad and fighting to head to Syria to stand by the Syrian people who are being killed at the hands of the regime and are now being killed at the hands of what he called the party of Satan.”Sami Aboudi, “Leading Sunni Muslim cleric calls for "jihad" in Syria,” Reuters, June 1, 2013, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-crisis-qaradawi/leading-sunni-muslim-cleric-calls-for-jihad-in-syria-idUSBRE9500CQ20130601.
As a result of his public persona, Qaradawi has been tied to violent extremists and propagandists around the world. Matthew Levitt of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy has called Qaradawi “one of the most public figureheads of the radical wing of the Muslim Brotherhood.”Sudarsan Raghavan and Joby Warrick, “How a 91-year-old imam came to symbolize the feud between Qatar and its neighbors,” Washington Post, June 27, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/how-a-91-year-old-imam-came-to-symbolize-feud-between-qatar-and-its-neighbors/2017/06/26/601d41b4-5157-11e7-91eb-9611861a988f_story.html?utm_term=.73afe65fad22. Qaradawi has been directly linked to the Muslim Brotherhood’s leadership, including acting Supreme Guide Mahmoud Ezzat and political leaders Mahmoud Ghozlan and Muhammad al-Beltagy—all of whom have been charged with encouraging violent protests against the Egyptian government. He has also supported the Brotherhood’s former Egyptian president, Mohammed Morsi, serving a life sentence for killing protesters. Qaradawi was also the chair of the U.S.-designated charity Union of Good, accused of funneling money to the Muslim Brotherhood’s Palestinian offshoot, Hamas. Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh is a member of Qaradawi’s International Union of Islamic Scholars, and Qaradawi has called for “jihad until death” against Israel during meetings with Haniyeh.Andrew Gilligan, “How the Muslim Brotherhood fits into a network of extremism,” Telegraph (London), February 8, 2015, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/11398538/How-the-Muslim-Brotherhood-fits-into-a-network-of-extremism.html;
“Treasury Designates the Union of Good,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, November 12, 2008, https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/hp1267.aspx;
“Hamas Leader Haniyah Joins Emerging Network of Islamists,” Access ADL, February 10, 2012, http://accessadl.blogspot.com/2012/02/hamas-leader-haniyah-joins-emerging.html;
Nidal al-Mughrabi, “Influential Muslim cleric visits Hamas-controlled Gaza,” Reuters, May 9, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/08/us-palestinians-gaza-cleric-idUSBRE94714Y20130508.