The Muslim Brotherhood is a transnational Sunni Islamist movement that seeks to implement sharia (Islamic law) under a global caliphate. Founded in Egypt in 1928, the Brotherhood is that country’s oldest Islamist organization and has branches throughout the world. A 2015 U.K. government investigation concluded that the Brotherhood has “promoted a radical, transformative politics, at odds with a millennium of Islamic jurisprudence and statecraft….”*“Muslim Brotherhood Review: Main Findings,” Gov.UK, December 17, 2015, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/486932/Muslim_Brotherhood_Review_Main_Findings.pdf. x In line with the British assessment, and despite the Brotherhood’s official commitment to non-violence, CEP has documented ideological and operational links between the Brotherhood’s ideology and violent terrorist groups like al-Qaeda and ISIS.
Brotherhood ideology has directly influenced several notable terrorist leaders. Al-Qaeda’s founders were students of early Brotherhood ideologues such as theoretician Sayyid Qutb, whose works informed the Islamist Qutbism ideology advocating violent jihad to establish governance according to sharia.*Dale C. Eikmeier, “Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism,” Parameters: U.S. Army War College Quarterly, Spring 2007, 89, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a485995.pdf; Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower, (New York: Random House, 2011), 36; Johannes J. G. Jansen, The Dual Nature of Islamic Fundamentalism, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1997), 50.x Proclaimed 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed read Qutb’s writings while attending Brotherhood camps as a teenager in Kuwait.* National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, Thomas H. Kean, and Lee Hamilton. 2004. The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (Washington, D.C.): 145, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf; Terry McDermott, “The Mastermind,” New Yorker, September 30, 2010, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/09/13/the-mastermind; Dale C. Eikmeier, “Qutbsim: An Ideology of Islamic-Facism,” U.S. Army War College 37, no. 1 (2007): 89, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a485995.pdf. x Al-Qaeda leaders Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri and ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi all belonged to the Brotherhood before assuming roles in their respective terror networks. As a result of these foundations, violent extremist groups such as ISIS serve as an extension of core Brotherhood ideology.* “JORDANIAN INTELLECTUAL FEHMI JADAANE: ISIS IS NOT THAT DIFFERENT IDEOLOGICALLY FROM THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD,” MEMRI, November 27, 2015, https://www.memri.org/tv/jordanian-intellectual-fehmi-jadaane-isis-not-different-ideologically-muslim-brotherhood; Ariel Ben Solomon, “ISIS and Muslim Brotherhood Share ‘Same Ideology with Different Actions,’” Jerusalem Post, December 13, 2015, https://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/ISIS-and-Muslim-Brotherhood-share-same-ideology-with-different-actions-437214. x
The Brotherhood officially maintains a platform of non-violence but has nevertheless supported violent terrorism across the Middle East. Egyptian authorities have directly connected the Brotherhood to violence in Egypt since the 2013 fall of the Brotherhood-led government there. Egypt labeled the Brotherhood a terrorist organization in December 2013 after authorities linked the organization to a car bombing that killed 14 people.*“Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood branded ‘terrorist group’ after bombing,” Telegraph (London), December 24, 2013, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/10536505/Egypt-Muslim-Brotherhood-branded-terrorist-group-after-bombing.html. x Further, the Brotherhood has supported the violent policies of its Palestinian offshoot, the internationally designated terror group Hamas. Hamas’s 1988 charter describes it specifically as “one of the wings of the Moslem Brotherhood in Palestine,”*“The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement,” Avalon Project, Yale Law School, August 18, 1988, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/hamas.asp. x and the group enjoyed close relations with Egypt’s Brotherhood-led government in 2012.* Associated Press, “Egypt Court: Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas, And Hezbollah Broke President Morsi Out Of Jail in 2011,” Business Insider, June 23, 2013, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-president-morsi-got-out-of-jail-in-2011-2013-6; “Egypt: Mohammed Morsi accused of conspiring with Hamas,” Telegraph (London), July 26, 2013,https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/10205552/Egypt-Mohammed-Morsi-accused-of-conspiring-with-Hamas.html; McClatchy, “Morsi’s ouster a ‘nightmare’ for Hamas rulers in Gaza Strip,” Olympian, July 8, 2013, https://www.theolympian.com/news/nation-world/national/article25318465.html.x Egyptian authorities accused Hamas and the Brotherhood of collaborating in the June 29, 2015, assassination of Egyptian Public Prosecutor Hisham Barakat.* Reuters, “Egypt arrests militants, links them to Muslim Brotherhood,” Yahoo News, November 4, 2016, https://www.yahoo.com/news/egypt-arrests-militants-links-them-muslim-brotherhood-082447987.html?ref=gs; Nour Youssef, “Egypt Says Muslim Brotherhood, Backed by Hamas, Killed Top Prosecutor,” New York Times, March 6, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/07/world/middleeast/egypt-says-muslim-brotherhood-backed-by-hamas-killed-top-prosecutor.html; “Egypt Hisham Barakat killing: 30 sentenced to death,” BBC News, June 17, 2017, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40313267.x Hamas leaders have since disavowed any ties to the Brotherhood, but have at the same time insisted that the original charter—and its language in support of the Brotherhood—remains in effect.* Jack Khoury, “Hamas Denies Links With Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Elsewhere,” Haaretz (Jerusalem), March 23, 2016, http://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/.premium-1.710423; “New Hamas policy document ‘aims to soften image,’” BBC News, May 1, 2017, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-39744551. x
CEP has also recorded links between specific Brotherhood members and terror financing and recruitment. Violent extremists have used Brotherhood ideological materials as a gateway to more violent philosophies. For example, ISIS recruiter Ibrahim Osama introduced Turkish foreign fighter Huseyin Mustafa Peri to the concept of jihad through Brotherhood literature before recruiting him to fight for ISIS in Syria.*Amberin Zaman, “Captured fighter details Islamic State's Turkey connection,” Al-Monitor, June 17, 2015, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/06/turkey-syria-iraq-isis-new-turkish-unit-lures-kurds.html. x Senior Brotherhood member Mohammad Jamal Khalifa was arrested in 1994 in connection with the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Prior to his death in 2007, authorities linked Khalifa to the financing of al-Qaeda, his brother-in-law Osama bin Laden, and the Philippines-based Abu Sayyaf Group.*Bill Roggio, “Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, Osama bin Laden’s brother-in-law, killed in Madagascar,” Long War Journal, January 31, 2007, https://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2007/01/mohammed_jamal_khali.php. x