Omar Mateen

Omar Mateen was an American citizen and ISIS follower who perpetrated the deadliest terror attack on American soil since 9/11. In the early morning hours of June 12, 2016, Mateen gunned down 49 people and injured 53 more at Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida. He reportedly pledged allegiance to ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi on Facebook—as well as in a call to 911—during the attack. He is believed to have spoken to a 911 operator at least three more times during the shooting.Hayley Tsukayama, Adam Goldman, Peter Holley and Mark Berman, “Terror in Orlando: 50 killed in shooting rampage at gay club; gunman pledged allegiance to ISIS,” Washington Post, June 12, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/06/12/orlando-nightclub-shooting-about-20-dead-in-domestic-terror-incident-at-gay-club/?utm_term=.bf262f6ae243; “Orlando gay nightclub shooting: 50 killed, suspect is Omar Mateen,” BBC News, June 12, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-36512308; Ralph Ellis, Ashley Fantz, Faith Karimi and Eliott C. McLaughlin, "Orlando shooting: 49 killed, shooter pledged ISIS allegiance," CNN, June 13, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/12/us/orlando-nightclub-shooting/;
Kevin Sullivan, Ellen Nakashima, Matt Zapotosky and Mark Berman, “Orlando shooter posted messages on Facebook pledging allegiance to the leader of ISIS and vowing more attacks,” Washington Post, June 15, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/investigation-into-orlando-shooting-continues-no-impending-charges-expected/2016/06/15/c3eccf5e-3333-11e6-8758-d58e76e11b12_story.html;
Julie Vitkovskaya, “‘You already know what I did': Read excerpts of Omar Mateen’s 911 calls to Orlando police,” Washington Post, June 20, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2016/06/20/here-is-the-excerpt-of-omar-mateens-911-call-to-orlando-police/.

Later on June 12, ISIS took responsibility for the mass shooting, writing on its Amaq news agency Telegram channel that “an Islamic State fighter” had “targeted a nightclub for homosexuals….” On June 13, the terror group released another claim of responsibility on its official Al Bayan radio station, referring to Mateen as “one of the soldiers of the caliphate in America.” However, there is little evidence suggesting ISIS lent direct operational support to Mateen, according to authorities. Jared Malsin, “What We Know About ISIS’s Role in the Orlando Shooting,” TIME, June 12, 2016, http://time.com/4365507/orlando-shooting-isis-claims-responsibility-terror/; “IS Calls Orlando Nightclub Shooter "One of the Soldiers of the Caliphate in America,” SITE Intelligence, June 13, 2016, https://news.siteintelgroup.com/Jihadist-News/is-calls-orlando-nightclub-shooter-one-of-the-soldiers-of-the-caliphate-in-america.html; Rukmini Callimachi, “ISIS Claims Responsibility for Orlando Attack in Radio Statement,” New York Times, June 13, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/live/orlando-nightclub-shooting-live-updates/isis-radio-station/; Pete Williams, Tracy Connor, Erik Ortiz and Stephanie Gosk, “Gunman Omar Mateen Described as Belligerent, Racist and 'Toxic',” NBC News, June 13, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/terror-hate-what-motivated-orlando-nightclub-shooter-n590496.

At 2 a.m. on June 12, Mateen entered Pulse and shot approximately one third of the clubbers. While firing his weapons, Mateen reportedly yelled “Allahu Akhbar,” and said that “America needs to stop bombing ISIS in Syria.” Witnesses also heard him say “stop bombing my country,” presumably in reference to his parents’ native Afghanistan. He engaged in a brief firefight with an off-duty officer, but survived the shootout and took approximately 30 people hostage in the bathroom of the club. During calls with the police, Mateen reportedly threatened to strap explosives to four of the hostages and place them throughout the club. He also reportedly said he would spare African American hostages, announcing, “I don’t have a problem with black people…This is about my country. You guys suffered enough.” At 5 a.m., a SWAT team stormed the premises and, according to authorities, detonated a “distractionary device” in order to confuse Mateen. The officers reportedly broke through a wall of the nightclub in order to free hostages, after which they shot and killed Mateen. “Orlando Shooting: What We Know and Don’t Know,” New York Times, June 12, 2016, http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/06/13/us/orlando-shooting-what-we-know-and-dont-know.html?referer=; Kate Lions, “Orlando Pulse club attack: gunman identified as police investigate motive,” Guardian (London), June 12, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/12/orlando-shooting-nightclub-pulse-gunman.

Mateen worked as a security guard and lived in Port St. Lucie, Florida. He had legally purchased firearms within a week of the attack, and used both a handgun and an AR-15-type assault rifle—as well as many rounds of ammunition—during the shooting. According to police, “suspicious devices” were found on Mateen as well as in his car. “Orlando Shooting: What We Know and Don’t Know,” New York Times, June 12, 2016, http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/06/13/us/orlando-shooting-what-we-know-and-dont-know.html?referer=; Colin Wolf, “Pulse shooter identified as Omar S. Mateen of Fort Pierce, Florida,” Orlando Weekly, June 12, 2016, http://www.orlandoweekly.com/Blogs/archives/2016/06/12/pulse-shooter-identified-as-omar-s-mateen-of-fort-pierce-florida; Kate Lions, “Orlando Pulse club attack: gunman identified as police investigate motive,” Guardian (London), June 12, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/12/orlando-shooting-nightclub-pulse-gunman; Jay Reeves and Eric Tucker, “Correction: Nightclub Shooting-Florida story,” Associated Press, June 15, 2016, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/761507bed75f461e9fd95a1422e63ef7/orlando-mourns-possible-motives-emerge-club-gunman; David Shariatmadari, “Omar Mateen's interest in gay men makes this no ordinary act of terrorism,” Guardian (London), June 14, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/14/omar-mateen-gay-men-terrorism-pulse-jackd-sexuality;
Kevin Sullivan, Ellen Nakashima, Matt Zapotosky and Mark Berman, “Orlando shooter posted messages on Facebook pledging allegiance to the leader of ISIS and vowing more attacks,” Washington Post, June 15, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/investigation-into-orlando-shooting-continues-no-impending-charges-expected/2016/06/15/c3eccf5e-3333-11e6-8758-d58e76e11b12_story.html;
Frances Robles and Richard Perez-Pena, “Omar Mateen Told Police He’d Strap Bombs to Hostages, Orlando Mayor Says,” New York Times, June 15, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/16/us/orlando-shooting.html;
Danika Fears, “Club killer wanted to spare black people,” New York Post, June 14, 2016, http://nypost.com/2016/06/14/club-killer-wanted-to-spare-black-people/;
Lizette Alvarez, Richard Perez-Pena, Christine Hauser, “Orlando Gunman Was ‘Cool and Calm’ After Massacre, Police Say,” New York Times, June 13, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/us/orlando-shooting.html.

The FBI interviewed Mateen in both 2013 and 2014, though both cases were closed after it was determined he did not pose a threat. In 2013, Mateen reportedly claimed he had family connections to al-Qaeda and Hezbollah, and told coworkers “he hoped that law enforcement would raid his apartment and assault his wife and child so that he could martyr himself,” according to FBI director James Comey.“Orlando gay nightclub shooting: Who was gunman Omar Mateen?,” BBC News, June 12, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-36513468;
Pete Williams, Tracy Connor, Erik Ortiz and Stephanie Gosk, “Gunman Omar Mateen Described as Belligerent, Racist and 'Toxic',” NBC News, June 13, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/terror-hate-what-motivated-orlando-nightclub-shooter-n590496;
Associated Press, “Obama says it appears Orlando shooter was inspired by extremist information disseminated over the internet,” Washington Post, June 13, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-says-it-appears-orlando-shooter-was-inspired-by-extremist-information-disseminated-over-the-internet/2016/06/13/e0d59f84-317a-11e6-ab9d-1da2b0f24f93_story.html;
Adam Goldman, Joby Warrick and Max Bearak, “‘He was not a stable person’: Orlando shooter showed signs of emotional trouble,” Washington Post, June 12, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/ex-wife-of-suspected-orlando-shooter-he-beat-me/2016/06/12/8a1963b4-30b8-11e6-8ff7-7b6c1998b7a0_story.html;
Associated Press, “FBI: Orlando Gunman Had Strong Indications of Radicalization,” ABC, June 13, 2016, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/fbi-orlando-gunman-strong-indications-radicalization-39820558.

In 2014, Mateen was questioned about his alleged connection to Moner Mohammad Abusalha, the first American to carry out a suicide bombing in Syria, on behalf of the Nusra Front. The two men were believed to attend the same mosque in Fort Pierce, Florida. According to FBI Director James Comey, “the investigation turned up no ties of any consequence between the two of them.” But on one of his calls with 911 during the shooting, Mateen reportedly noted his support for Abusalha, as well as the Tsarnaev brothers, responsible for the Boston marathon bombings in April 2013. In an around 2013, Mateen is also believed to have watched videos of the deceased al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, whose radical propaganda has been implicated in multiple domestic terror attacks including the 2009 Fort Hood shooting, the 2013 Boston bombing, and the 2015 San Bernardino shooting.“Orlando gay nightclub shooting: Who was gunman Omar Mateen?,” BBC News, June 12, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-36513468; Pete Williams, Tracy Connor, Erik Ortiz and Stephanie Gosk, “Gunman Omar Mateen Described as Belligerent, Racist and 'Toxic',” NBC News, June 13, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/terror-hate-what-motivated-orlando-nightclub-shooter-n590496; Associated Press, “Obama says it appears Orlando shooter was inspired by extremist information disseminated over the internet,” Washington Post, June 13, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-says-it-appears-orlando-shooter-was-inspired-by-extremist-information-disseminated-over-the-internet/2016/06/13/e0d59f84-317a-11e6-ab9d-1da2b0f24f93_story.html; Adam Goldman, Joby Warrick and Max Bearak, “‘He was not a stable person’: Orlando shooter showed signs of emotional trouble,” Washington Post, June 12, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/ex-wife-of-suspected-orlando-shooter-he-beat-me/2016/06/12/8a1963b4-30b8-11e6-8ff7-7b6c1998b7a0_story.html; Associated Press, “FBI: Orlando Gunman Had Strong Indications of Radicalization,” ABC, June 13, 2016, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/fbi-orlando-gunman-strong-indications-radicalization-39820558; “Orlando killer expressed support for multiple Islamist groups,” Reuters Canada, June 14, 2016, http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCAKCN0YY08B?sp=true; Cassandra Vinograd, “Omar Mateen, U.S. Suicide Bomber Tied to Fort Pierce, Florida,” NBC, June 13, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/omar-mateen-u-s-suicide-bomber-tied-fort-pierce-florida-n590846.

On June 13, President Obama said that it appeared Mateen had been radicalized by extremist content online, and referred to the attack as a case of “homegrown extremism.” Mateen operated a Facebook account, and pledged allegiance to ISIS, writing “may Allah accept me,” on the account before the attack. He also reportedly operated an account on the social media site MySpace, although it is unclear if he utilized the platform to disseminate extremist messaging. Mateen reportedly searched for news of the attack as he was carrying it out.“Orlando gay nightclub shooting: Who was gunman Omar Mateen?,” BBC News, June 12, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-36513468; Pete Williams, Tracy Connor, Erik Ortiz and Stephanie Gosk, “Gunman Omar Mateen Described as Belligerent, Racist and 'Toxic',” NBC News, June 13, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/terror-hate-what-motivated-orlando-nightclub-shooter-n590496; Associated Press, “Obama says it appears Orlando shooter was inspired by extremist information disseminated over the internet,” Washington Post, June 13, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-says-it-appears-orlando-shooter-was-inspired-by-extremist-information-disseminated-over-the-internet/2016/06/13/e0d59f84-317a-11e6-ab9d-1da2b0f24f93_story.html; Adam Goldman, Joby Warrick and Max Bearak, “‘He was not a stable person’: Orlando shooter showed signs of emotional trouble,” Washington Post, June 12, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/ex-wife-of-suspected-orlando-shooter-he-beat-me/2016/06/12/8a1963b4-30b8-11e6-8ff7-7b6c1998b7a0_story.html; Associated Press, “FBI: Orlando Gunman Had Strong Indications of Radicalization,” ABC, June 13, 2016, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/fbi-orlando-gunman-strong-indications-radicalization-39820558; Rachel Bishop, “Orlando clubbers filmed dancing just two hours before ISIS fanatic shot 49 partygoers dead,” Mirror (London), June 13, 2016, http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/orlando-clubbers-filmed-dancing-just-8183772; Kevin Sullivan, Ellen Nakashima, Matt Zapotosky and Mark Berman, “Orlando shooter posted messages on Facebook pledging allegiance to the leader of ISIS and vowing more attacks,” Washington Post, June 15, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/investigation-into-orlando-shooting-continues-no-impending-charges-expected/2016/06/15/c3eccf5e-3333-11e6-8758-d58e76e11b12_story.html; Richard Perez-Pena, “Omar Mateen Posted to Facebook Amid Orlando Attack, Lawmaker Says,” New York Times, June 16, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/17/us/orlando-shooting.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=photo-spot-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news.

According to numerous witnesses, Mateen had frequently visited Pulse. One of the club’s customers reported that Mateen had attempted to pick up men, and that the customer’s friends thought Mateen was a “strange person.” Another witness reported that Mateen had messaged him over an online dating app for gay men called Jack’d. Others claimed he interacted with them on gay dating apps including Grindr and Adam 4 Adam. In late June, the FBI reported it had found no evidence suggesting Mateen communicated on gay dating apps or had homosexual relationships.“Orlando attacker Omar Mateen 'frequented gay nightclub',” Al Jazeera, June 14, 2016, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/06/orlando-attacker-omar-mateen-visited-pulse-gay-club-160614112632336.html;
Matt Zapotosky, Adam Goldman and Brian Murphy, “FBI director: Orlando shooting probe also looks ‘backward’ into agency files on shooter,” Washington Post, June 14, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/06/14/fbi-director-orlando-shooting-probe-also-looks-backward-into-agency-files-on-shooter/?utm_term=.06bccfa2ea41;
“If you were gay you would definitely be my type’: Orlando shooter came onto former classmate and shared penis pictures on gay app - but gunman's father insists he isn't homosexual,” Daily Mail (London), last modified June 16, 2016, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3642784/If-gay-definitely-type-Former-classmate-reveals-Orlando-shooter-came-drag-queen-says-club-regular-shooter-s-father-insists-isn-t-homosexual.html;
“FBI investigators say they have found no evidence that Orlando shooter had gay lovers,” Los Angeles Times, June 23, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-orlando-gay-fbi-20160623-snap-story.html.

Mateen’s autopsy showed that he had been a habitual user of steroids for muscle growth at the time of his death. These steroids are reportedly known to cause severe emotional swings in some users, although it is unknown whether this played any role in Mateen’s decision to perpetrate the shooting.Ginger Adams Otis,” Orlando nightclub shooter Omar Mateen was HIV-negative and user of steroids, autopsy shows,” New York Daily News, July 15, 2016, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/omar-mateen-hiv-negative-habitual-steroid-user-autopsy-article-1.2713155.

After the attack, Mateen’s father, Seddique Mateen, immediately denied a connection between his son’s crime and radical Islam, stating that the shooting “had nothing to do with religion.” According to his father, Omar had previously been angered after witnessing a same-sex couple kissing in Miami. The day after the shooting, Mateen’s father posted a video on Facebook in which he claimed that “God himself will punish those involved in homosexuality…this is not for the servants [of God].” Pete Williams, Tracy Connor and Erik Ortiz, “Nightclub Shooter Omar Mateen Pledged Allegiance to ISIS, Was Once Probed by FBI,” NBC News, June 12, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/terror-hate-what-motivated-orlando-nightclub-shooter-n590496; Tim Craig, Max Bearak and Lee Powell, “Shooter Omar Mateen’s father says he’s saddened by massacre, calls gunman ‘a good son’,” Washington Post, June 13, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the-orlando-shooters-afghan-roots/2016/06/13/d89a8cd0-30e4-11e6-ab9d-1da2b0f24f93_story.html.

Mateen was born in New York to Afghan immigrant parents, and moved to Florida more than a decade prior to the shooting. At age 14, Mateen reportedly imitated an airplane flying into the twin towers, and claimed he could shoot an AK-47. He reportedly applauded the 9/11 attacks when they occurred, and told classmates that Osama bin Laden was his uncle. In high school, Mateen reportedly smoked marijuana and used steroids, and was expelled in the ninth grade for fighting. He attended Indian River State College, receiving an associate of science degree in criminal justice technology in 2006.Kevin Sullivan, Ellen Nakashima, Matt Zapotosky and Mark Berman, “Orlando shooter posted messages on Facebook pledging allegiance to the leader of ISIS and vowing more attacks,” Washington Post, June 15, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/investigation-into-orlando-shooting-continues-no-impending-charges-expected/2016/06/15/c3eccf5e-3333-11e6-8758-d58e76e11b12_story.html; Evan Perez, Shimon Prokupecz, Catherine E. Shoichet and Amy La Porte, “Omar Mateen pledged allegiance to ISIS, official says,” CNN, June 13, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/12/us/orlando-shooter-omar-mateen/; Damian Paletta, Alexandra Berzon, and John R. Emshwiller, “A Life of Violent Threats Paved Way for Orlando Attack,” Washington Post, June 17, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/a-life-of-violent-threats-paved-way-for-orlando-attack-1466127324.

Mateen’s ex-wife, Sitora Yusufiy, claimed that Mateen was bipolar, and told reporters that he had physically abused her. Yusufiy’s parents were reportedly forced to rescue her from the marriage. According to Yusufiy, “He started abusing me physically, very often, and not allowing me to speak to my family, keeping me hostage from them.” Evan Perez, Shimon Prokupecz, Catherine E. Shoichet and Amy La Porte, “Omar Mateen pledged allegiance to ISIS, official says,” CNN, June 13, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/12/us/orlando-shooter-omar-mateen/.

Mateen worked as a security guard for a company called G4S Secure Solutions, and reportedly aspired to become a law-enforcement officer. A former colleague of Mateen’s reportedly described him as “toxic,” belligerent, and racist, adding that he “referred to every other race, religion, gender in a derogatory way.” Another former co-worker, Daniel Gilroy, told reporters that Mateen had “talked about killing people all the time.” Mateen’s peer in high school, Robert Zirkle, said, “We joked that he’d become a terrorist. And then he did.”Pete Williams, Tracy Connor, Erik Ortiz and Stephanie Gosk, “Gunman Omar Mateen Described as Belligerent, Racist and 'Toxic',” NBC News, June 13, 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/terror-hate-what-motivated-orlando-nightclub-shooter-n590496; Alan Blinder, Jack Healy and Richard A. Oppel Jr., “Omar Mateen: From Early Promise to F.B.I. Surveillance,” New York Times, June 12, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/13/us/omar-mateen-early-signs-of-promise-then-abuse-and-suspected-terrorist-ties.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=a-lede-package-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news; Damian Paletta, Alexandra Berzon, and John R. Emshwiller, “A Life of Violent Threats Paved Way for Orlando Attack,” Washington Post, June 17, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/a-life-of-violent-threats-paved-way-for-orlando-attack-1466127324.

Mateen’s second wife, Noor Salman, faces charges for failing to alert authorities about the attack. According to U.S. officials speaking to NBC News, Salman once drove with Mateen to the Pulse nightclub, and had accompanied him to purchase ammunition. Salman also reportedly claimed that she had attempted to talk Mateen out of carrying out the attack.Jason Silverstein, “Omar Mateen's wife Noor Salman went with him to Pulse nightclub and to buy ammo, might face criminal charges,” New York Daily News, June 14, 2016, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/omar-mateen-wife-spotted-time-massacre-article-1.2672956. According to Salman’s attorney, she suffered abuse for years at the hand of Mateen.“Some neighbors ‘not surprised’ after wife of Pulse nightclub shooter arrested,” WHIOTV7, January 17, 2017, http://www.whio.com/news/national/some-neighbors-not-surprised-after-wife-pulse-nightclub-shooter-arrested/kGTxMlxbUhBvmB8a0anlBM/.

On January 16, 2017, Salman was arrested outside of San Francisco on charges of obstruction of justice and aiding and abetting Mateen’s “material support” to ISIS.Pamela Brown, Evan Perez and Adam Levine, “Widow of Orlando nightclub shooter Omar Mateern arrested,” CNN, January 17, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/01/16/us/omar-mateen-wife-arrested/. According to Orlando Chief of Police John Mina, Salman had enough information in advance of the shooting to prevent the attack.Pamela Brown, Evan Perez and Adam Levine, “Widow of Orlando nightclub shooter Omar Mateern arrested,” CNN, January 17, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/01/16/us/omar-mateen-wife-arrested/. Salman pled not guilty to the charges, and on March 1, 2017, she was released on a bail of $500,000 on the grounds that there was no evidence that she held connections to the Islamic State or any other extremist groups.Liz Kreutz, Emily Shapiro and Duan Perrin, “Wife of Pulse Nightclub Gunman Omar Mateen Pleads Not Guilty,” ABC News, January 18, 2017, http://abcnews.go.com/US/wife-pulse-nightclub-gunman-omar-mateen-pleads-guilty/story?id=4485158;
Christal Hayes and Gal Tziperman Lotan, “Pulse shooter’s widow, Noor Salman, to be released on bail,” Orlando Sentinel, March 1, 2017, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/pulse-orlando-nightclub-shooting/os-noor-salman-released-bail-pulse-20170301-story.html.
This ruling was reversed by an Orlando federal judge a week later, who ruled that she should remain in prison on grounds of her awareness of her husband’s plans.Gal Tziperman Lotan, “Judge: Pulse shooter Omar Mateen’s widow, Noor Salman, will stay in Jail,” Orlando Sentinel, March 10, 2017, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/pulse-orlando-nightclub-shooting/os-noor-salman-pulse-details-20170310-story.html. Salman began trial hearings in April 2017.Rene Stutzman, “Noor Salman trial starts in March; summonses to be sent in September, judge says,” Orlando Sentinel, April 20, 2017, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/pulse-orlando-nightclub-shooting/os-pulse-noor-salman-trial-date-hearing-20170420-story.html. On March 30, 2018, Salman was found not guilty and was released.Eric Levenson, “Pulse gunman’s widow found not guily,” CNN, March 31, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/03/30/us/noor-salman-pulse-trial-verdict/index.html.

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On September 17, 2019, a suicide bomber on a motorcycle detonated outside a Presidential rally in Charikar, Afghanistan, killing at least 26 people and injuring another 30. Later, a suicide bomber detonated outside the Ministry of Defense in Kabul, killing 22 and wounding 38 others. The Taliban claimed responsibility for both attacks. 

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