Louis Farrakhan

Louis Farrakhan is the leader of the Chicago-based Nation of Islam (NOI), a Black-Muslim nationalist movement founded in 1930 by Fard Muhammad.“Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan,” Nation of Islam, accessed July 10, 2020, https://www.noi.org/minister-louis-farrakhan/. Farrakhan has led NOI since 1977, achieving fame as a vocal spokesman for Black rights, perhaps most famously as the organizer of the 1995 Million Man March in Washington, D.C.“Farrakhan revels in the spotlight of Million Man March,” CNN, October 16, 1995, http://edition.cnn.com/US/9510/megamarch/10-16/update/index.html. At the same time, Farrakhan has earned a reputation for being anti-Semitic and anti-white. He has praised Adolph Hitler,“History of the Jewish Attack on Min. Louis FARRAKHAN,” YouTube video, 12:17, posted by “apidta” on November 7, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KP0nM8RyJgM; “MINISTER LOUIS FARRAKHAN & THE JEWS: WHAT IS THE TRUTH?” Nation of Islam Research Group, March 16, 2018, http://noirg.org/news/min-louis-farrakhan-the-jews/. condemned Judaism as a “gutter religion,”“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/; Fay S. Joyce, “Jackson Criticized Remarks Made By Farrakhan as ‘Reprehensible,’” New York Times, June 29, 1984, https://www.nytimes.com/1984/06/29/world/jackson-criticizes-remarks-made-by-farrakhan-as-reprehensible.html. likened Jews to termites,“Video of Louis Farrakhan comparing Jews to termites removed from Facebook,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 21, 2018, https://www.jta.org/2018/10/21/united-states/farrakhan-termites-video-removed-facebook. and claimed the “synagogue of Satan”  is attempting to destroy Muslim unity.“Minister Louis Farrakhan’s Iran Press Conference,” Nation of Islam, February 9, 2016, https://www.noi.org/tehran-iran-presser2016-02-09/. Farrakhan has been banned from Facebook and Instagram,Oliver Darcy, “Louis Farrakhan, Alex Jones and other 'dangerous' voices banned by Facebook and Instagram,” CNN, May 3, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/02/tech/facebook-ban-louis-farrakhan-infowars-alex-jones-milo-laura-loomer/index.html; Jonathan Barr, “Pro-Louis Farrakhan Facebook Resurfaces After Ban, Name Change,” Forbes, June 30, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jonathanberr/2019/06/30/pro-louis-farrakhan-facebook-resurfaces-after-ban-name-change/#2172af1b5a01. as well as the United Kingdom.“Farrakhan banned from Britain,” CNN, April 30, 2002, https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/04/30/britain.farrakhan/index.html. Nonetheless, Farrakhan continues to spread his opprobrium on social media and has influenced numerous celebrities who have defended him as a champion of Black rights.

Born in Bronx, New York, and raised in Massachusetts, Farrakhan originally trained as an entertainer. He traveled the country singing, dancing, and playing the violin. He also wrote two plays, “The Trial” and “Orgena”—“A Negro” spelled backward. In 1955, he attended an NOI meeting in Chicago during a stopover. NOI was led by Elijah Muhammad at the time, and Farrakhan joined a New York affiliate that year. Malcolm X, then a minister in NOI, told Farrakhan and other members of the New York Branch that Elijah Muhammad had decreed that all members would have to leave showbusiness if they wanted to remain in NOI. While several NOI members in New York chose to leave at that point, Farrakhan instead left showbusiness to dedicate himself completely to the organization.“Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan,” Nation of Islam, accessed July 10, 2020, https://www.noi.org/minister-louis-farrakhan/; “Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/.

Farrakhan immersed himself in NOI and began writing for its newspaper, Muhammad Speaks. In the early 1960s, he famously feuded with high-ranking NOI member Malcolm X, who began voicing disagreement with NOI leader Elijah Muhammad after discovering Muhammad had hidden multiple affairs and illegitimate children.Dwayne Wong, “Getting to the Truth of Why Malcolm X Left the Nation of Islam,” Medium, October 22, 2019, https://medium.com/@dwomowale/getting-to-the-truth-of-why-malcolm-x-left-the-nation-of-islam-8b91c44c3e55. This created a rift in NOI’s leadership and led to Malcolm X’s excommunication from NOI in 1963. In a December 1964 issue of Muhammad Speaks, Farrakhan branded Malcolm X a traitor “worthy of death.”“Farrakhan Regrets Role In Malcolm X’s Death,” Washington Post, May 11, 2000, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2000/05/11/farrakhan-regrets-role-in-malcolm-xs-death/f8880174-939c-40f6-b1e0-e0f79e6673e0/; Associated Press, “Widow of Malcolm X Suspects Farrakhan Had Role in Killing,” New York Times, March 13, 1994, https://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/13/nyregion/widow-of-malcolm-x-suspects-farrakhan-had-role-in-killing.html. Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965. His widow, Betty Shabazz, later accused Farrakhan of ordering her husband’s killing, which Farrakhan denied. Farrakhan did, however, label Malcolm X his “enemy because I felt him to be the enemy of black people.”Associated Press, “Widow of Malcolm X Suspects Farrakhan Had Role in Killing,” New York Times, March 13, 1994, https://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/13/nyregion/widow-of-malcolm-x-suspects-farrakhan-had-role-in-killing.html. In 1994, Farrakhan expressed his regret that his writings helped create an atmosphere that contributed to Malcolm X’s death.“Farrakhan Regrets Role In Malcolm X’s Death,” Washington Post, May 11, 2000, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2000/05/11/farrakhan-regrets-role-in-malcolm-xs-death/f8880174-939c-40f6-b1e0-e0f79e6673e0/.

After Malcolm X’s assassination, Farrakhan replaced him as NOI’s spokesman.“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/. Elijah Muhammad died in 1975 and was replaced by Wallace Deen Muhammad. Muhammad and Farrakhan disagreed on NOI’s future, as Muhammad wanted to move NOI away from the idea of racial separatism and be more inclusive. Farrakhan took over NOI in 1977 and Muhammad left the group to create the World Community of al-Islam.“Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan,” Nation of Islam, accessed July 10, 2020, https://www.noi.org/minister-louis-farrakhan/; “Louis Farrakhan,” Southern Poverty Law Center, accessed July 24, 2020, https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/individual/louis-farrakhan. Farrakhan often refers to himself as the heir to Elijah Muhammad’s legacy, but Muhammad’s son, Warith Deen Mohammed, has accused him of presenting a “false image of Islam.”Newsday, “Elijah Muhammad’s son counters Farrakhan teachings,” Baltimore Sun, May 16, 1994, https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-1994-05-16-1994136064-story.html. Mohammed also claimed his father would have repudiated Farrakhan’s anti-Semitic accusations.Newsday, “Elijah Muhammad’s son counters Farrakhan teachings,” Baltimore Sun, May 16, 1994, https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-1994-05-16-1994136064-story.html.

Farrakhan gained national notoriety in the 1980s as he became more politically active. In 1983, he traveled to Syria with Reverend Jesse Jackson to negotiate the release of U.S. Navy pilot Lieutenant Robert O. Goodman, who had been held captive by the Syrian military since being shot down in Lebanon on December 4. Goodman returned to the United States on January 4, 1984.“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/; Kate Thayer, “Politician, pilot mark 30th year since Syrian capture, release at Saturday event,” Chicago Tribune, January 5, 2014, https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2014-01-05-ct-jesse-jackson-anniversary-met-20140105-story.html. In June 1984, Farrakhan defended Jackson’s remarks earlier in the year referring to New York as the anti-Semitic slur “Hymietown.” During a radio broadcast, Farrakhan called Judaism a “gutter religion” and called supporters of Israel criminals in the eyes of God.“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/; Fay S. Joyce, “Jackson Criticized Remarks Made By Farrakhan as ‘Reprehensible,’” New York Times, June 29, 1984, https://www.nytimes.com/1984/06/29/world/jackson-criticizes-remarks-made-by-farrakhan-as-reprehensible.html. Jackson called Farrakhan’s remarks “reprehensible” and accused him of dividing the Democratic Party.“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/; Fay S. Joyce, “Jackson Criticized Remarks Made By Farrakhan as ‘Reprehensible,’” New York Times, June 29, 1984, https://www.nytimes.com/1984/06/29/world/jackson-criticizes-remarks-made-by-farrakhan-as-reprehensible.html. Farrakhan initially endorsed Jackson’s 1984 presidential bid but withdrew his support after the criticism.“Who is Louis Farrakhan? 10 things to know about the Nation of Islam leader, black activist,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 18, 2018, https://www.ajc.com/news/national/who-louis-farrakhan-things-know-about-the-nation-islam-leader-black-activist/1zUaxjihBLiqOKso5h262H/. Farrakhan drew national attention in December 1984 after calling Adolf Hitler “a very great man” who revived Germany economically.“History of the Jewish Attack on Min. Louis FARRAKHAN,” YouTube video, 12:17, posted by “apidta” on November 7, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KP0nM8RyJgM; “MINISTER LOUIS FARRAKHAN & THE JEWS: WHAT IS THE TRUTH?” Nation of Islam Research Group, March 16, 2018, http://noirg.org/news/min-louis-farrakhan-the-jews/.

Farrakhan’s anti-Semitism stems from his belief that Jews were involved in the U.S. slave trade. In 1985, he outright accused Jews of owning the slave ships and having a master-slave relationship with Black people.“Louis Farrakhan,” Southern Poverty Law Center, accessed July 24, 2020, https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/individual/louis-farrakhan. In 1991, at Farrakhan’s request, NOI’s research department published The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, which highlighted Jews’ involvement in the slave trade and the Confederacy. Historians generally label the book as wildly inaccurate and vicious.“Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan,” Nation of Islam, accessed July 10, 2020, https://www.noi.org/minister-louis-farrakhan/; “Louis Farrakhan,” Southern Poverty Law Center, accessed July 24, 2020, https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/individual/louis-farrakhan. NOI published two volumes of the book and a third called Jews Selling Blacks.Batya Ungar-Sargon, “Is Jewish Control Over the Slave Trade a Nation of Islam Lie or Scholarly Truth?,” Tablet, August 5, 2013, https://www.tabletmag.com/sections/arts-letters/articles/slave-trade-black-muslim. In June 2010, Farrakhan sent a letter to Anti-Defamation League executive director Abraham Foxman, charging Jews with “being the most deceitful so-called friend, while your history with us shows you have been our worst enemy.”Louis Farrakhan, “Minister Louis Farrakhan's Letter To ADL's Abraham Foxman,” Final Call, June 24, 2010, https://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Minister_Louis_Farrakhan_9/article_7116.shtml. Foxman has called Farrakhan’s anti-Semitism “obsessive, diabolical and unrestrained,” while accusing him of opening “a new chapter in his ministry where scapegoating Jews is not just part of a message, but the message.”“Farrakhan calls Jews blacks’ ‘worst enemy,’ appeals for dialogue,” Religion News Service, July 1, 2010, https://religionnews.com/2010/07/01/nation-of-islam-leader-louis-farrakhan-is-seeking-dialogue-with-jewish-lead/.

Farrakhan’s comments have gained him international notoriety. The United Kingdom banned Farrakhan from the country in early 1986 because of his anti-Semitic remarks and a fear that he would stoke racial tensions. Home Secretary Douglas Hurd said Farrakhan’s presence would not be “conducive to the public good.”United Press International, “BRITISH HOLD FARRAKHAN BEFORE FLIGHT TO AFRICA,” Chicago Tribune, February 7, 1987, https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1986-02-07-8601100438-story.html. Nonetheless, Farrakhan flew to London on February 7 that year with his wife, Betsy, and 13 others from an NOI delegation. British authorities detained Farrakhan and his party for 11 hours before placing them on a flight to Nigeria.United Press International, “BRITISH HOLD FARRAKHAN BEFORE FLIGHT TO AFRICA,” Chicago Tribune, February 7, 1987, https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1986-02-07-8601100438-story.html. The United Kingdom’s Court of Appeal upheld the ban in 2002, ruling Farrakhan’s “notorious opinions” might provoke disorder.“Farrakhan banned from Britain,” CNN, April 30, 2002, https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/04/30/britain.farrakhan/index.html.

Farrakhan has also linked himself to the defense of international dictators. During the 1980s, Farrakhan developed a close relationship with Libyan dictator Muammar Ghaddafi. In May 1985, Farrakhan accepted a $5 million interest-free loan from Ghaddafi.“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, . https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/. Farrakhan later claimed that on September 17, 1985, he had a “vision-like experience” during which he learned of U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s plans to launch a war. Farrakhan further claimed he learned a few months later the war would be against Ghaddafi.Louis Farrakhan, “Letter of warning to President George Bush: December 1, 2001,” Nation of Islam, December 1, 2001, https://www.noi.org/letter-to-president-bush-12-01-2001/. Farrakhan visited Ghaddafi in Libya on several occasions.Dorothy J. Gaiter, “Nation of Islam Tries to Accept Gift of $1 Billion from Libya,” Wall Street Journal, last updated August 26, 1996, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB841007141275125500. The State Department had placed a travel ban on Libya in January 1986. While on an 11-country tour of Africa that June, Farrakhan filed a lawsuit against Reagan, Secretary of State George Schultz, Secretary of Treasury James Baker, and Attorney General Edwin Meese. Farrakhan claimed U.S. economic sanctions and a travel ban on Libya violated his freedom to worship and freedom of speech. The lawsuit was dismissed on June 3, 1987, after a court upheld the travel ban and prevented NOI from repaying the $5 million loan.“Farrakhan Sues Reagan,” United Press International, June 26, 1986, https://www.upi.com/Archives/1986/06/26/Farrakhan-sues-Reagan/5814520142400/; “Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/. In 1996, U.S. courts blocked NOI from accepting a $1 billion loan from Ghaddafi.Dorothy J. Gaiter, “Nation of Islam Tries to Accept Gift of $1 Billion from Libya,” Wall Street Journal, last updated August 26, 1996, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB841007141275125500. In a December 2001 letter to U.S. President George W. Bush, Farrakhan wrote that Ghaddafi and Panamanian President Manuel Noriega had been unfairly demonized in American media. Farrakhan urged Bush to act responsibly in global relations after the September 11 attacks.Louis Farrakhan, “Letter of warning to President George Bush: December 1, 2001,” Nation of Islam, December 1, 2001, https://www.noi.org/letter-to-president-bush-12-01-2001/.

In addition to Libya, Farrakhan has formed relations with Iran. While visiting Iran in February 2016, he accused the United States of fomenting revolting and destabilization in the country. During the same interview with Iran’s PressTV, he accused the “synagogue of Satan” of attempting to destroy Muslim unity.“Minister Louis Farrakhan’s Iran Press Conference,” Nation of Islam, February 9, 2016, https://www.noi.org/tehran-iran-presser2016-02-09/.

Social media has provided Farrakhan new avenues for spreading his bigotry on a global scale. Through NOI, Farrakhan set up accounts on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and other platforms. Some of those platforms have acted against Farrakhan’s hateful rhetoric. Twitter removed its verified-status checkmark from Farrakhan’s account in June 2018 after his account posted a tweet about “unmasking the Satanic Jew and the Synagogue of Satan,” along with a clip from a Farrakhan speech that May.“Twitter removes verified status from Louis Farrakhan’s account,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 11, 2018, https://www.jta.org/2018/06/11/united-states/twitter-removes-verified-status-louis-farrakhans-account. On October 16, 2018, Farrakhan posted a video to Facebook and Twitter of a speech in honor of the anniversary of the Million Man March. In the speech, Farrakhan declared he is not an anti-Semite, he is anti-termite. Facebook removed the post for violating its hate-speech policies. Twitter left the post online, claiming its policy against dehumanizing speech had not yet been implemented.“Video of Louis Farrakhan comparing Jews to termites removed from Facebook,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 21, 2018, https://www.jta.org/2018/10/21/united-states/farrakhan-termites-video-removed-facebook.

On May 2, 2019, Facebook declared Farrakhan’s rhetoric dangerous and shut down his account as well as accounts belonging to related Facebook groups. Some of those groups attempted to skirt the ban by changing their names. Farrakhan’s Instagram account, owned by Facebook, was also shut down.Oliver Darcy, “Louis Farrakhan, Alex Jones and other 'dangerous' voices banned by Facebook and Instagram,” CNN, May 3, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/02/tech/facebook-ban-louis-farrakhan-infowars-alex-jones-milo-laura-loomer/index.html; Jonathan Barr, “Pro-Louis Farrakhan Facebook Resurfaces After Ban, Name Change,” Forbes, June 30, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jonathanberr/2019/06/30/pro-louis-farrakhan-facebook-resurfaces-after-ban-name-change/#2172af1b5a01. Twitter continues to allow Farrakhan to use its platform, though it has taken some action against him to censor him. On July 9, 2019, Twitter introduced a new rule prohibiting the dehumanization of religious groups and called on Farrakhan to delete his 2018 tweet in which he called Jews termites.Oliver Darcy, “Twitter says Louis Farrakhan's 2018 anti-Semitic tweet violates new rules,” July, 9, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/07/09/media/twitter-louis-farrakhan/index.html.

With these far-reaching platforms, Farrakhan has continued to inspire celebrities. In June 2020, comedian Chelsea Handler posted to her Instagram account a clip of Farrakhan on “The Phil Donahue Show.” Handler later apologized and removed the clip after initially defending it. Actress Jessica Chastain also shared the Farrakhan clip, while celebrities Jennifer Aniston, Michelle Pfeiffer, and Jennifer Garner liked the posting on Instagram. Chastain later deleted the clip from her account.Marcy Oster, “Chelsea Handler apologizes for posting Louis Farrakhan video clip,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 23, 2020, https://www.jta.org/quick-reads/chelsea-handler-apologizes-for-posting-louis-farrakhan-video-clip. In July 2020, Madonna posted a video to her Instagram account featuring Farrakhan declaring that the United States is “unraveling,” “cascading downward,” and “coming to an end.”Madonna, Instagram account, July 4, 2020, https://www.instagram.com/tv/CCPObbRhu1s/. Farrakhan had been scheduled to give a Fourth of July speech on Fox Soul TV, part of the Fox Network. But the station canceled his appearance after a widespread backlash.Ben Sales, “What is Fox Soul TV? And is it broadcasting a speech by Louis Farrakhan?,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 29, 2020, https://www.jta.org/2020/06/29/culture/what-is-fox-soul-tv-and-is-it-broadcasting-a-speech-by-louis-farrakhan. Farrakhan’s speech was instead livestreamed on NOI’s website and uploaded to YouTube.“Minister Louis Farrakhan’s July 4th Address: The Criterion,” YouTube video, 3:55:56, uploaded July 4, 2020, by “The Nation of Islam,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cmdGOUumVY. Rapper Sean “Diddy” Combs also broadcasted Farrakhan’s speech on his Revolt TV cable network.Cassie Da Costa, “The Disturbing Rise of Anti-Semitism Among Black Celebs,” Daily Beast, https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-disturbing-rise-of-anti-semitism-among-black-celebs-from-diddy-and-nick-cannon-to-ice-cube?ref=scroll.

Several professional athletes have also praised Farrakhan in 2020, eliciting widespread condemnation. That May, retired National Football League player Donovan McNabb shared on Twitter a picture of Farrakhan and a quote about seeking justice.Kyle Dalton, “Did Donovan McNabb's Recent Posts on Louis Farrakhan Inspire DeSean Jackson?,” Sportscasting, July 10, 2020, https://www.sportscasting.com/did-donovan-mcnabbs-recent-posts-on-louis-farrakhan-inspire-desean-jackson/. On July 5, Desean Jackson of the Philadelphia Eagles praised Farrakhan on his Instagram account and shared a quote about Jews controlling the world that has been falsely attributed to Hitler. The owners of the Eagles swiftly condemned his comments and Jackson later apologized.Les Bowen and Rob Tornoe, “Eagles’ DeSean Jackson apologizes for anti-Semitic posts, says he’ll ‘do better’ and ‘educate myself,’” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 7, 2020, https://www.inquirer.com/eagles/desean-jackson-eagles-anti-semitic-instagram-posts-adolph-hitler-louis-farrakhan-jewish-coronavirus-vaccine-20200707.html. On July 8, former National Basketball Association player Stephen Jackson defended Desean Jackson’s comments and accused “the Jews” of trying to divide the Black community while controlling the world’s wealth. Stephen Jackson went on to declare his “love” for Farrakhan.Des Bieler, “Stephen Jackson says DeSean Jackson is ‘speaking the truth,’ adds anti-Semitic claims of his own,” Washington Post, July 8, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/07/08/stephen-jackson-says-desean-jackson-is-speaking-truth-adds-anti-semitic-claims-his-own/.

Farrakhan continues to lead NOI despite his advancing age and multiple health issues. Bouts with prostate cancer led him to relinquish some of his duties as leader of NOI in the 1990s but in February 2000 he had his prostate and cancerous colon tissue removed.“Louis Farrakhan Fast Facts,” CNN, last updated June 19, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2013/05/24/us/louis-farrakhan-fast-facts/. He continues to give passionate hours-long speeches to NOI audiences, during which he continues to intensify his anti-Semitism positions. On July 4, 2020, for example, Farrakhan gave a Fourth of July speech livestreamed on NOI’s website and posted to YouTube in which he claimed Jews are responsible for the majority of the world’s problems and Jews are trying to poison him because he revealed “their wickedness.” He guaranteed Jews’ “destruction” if they succeed.“Minister Louis Farrakhan’s July 4th Address: The Criterion,” YouTube video, 3:55:56, uploaded July 4, 2020, by “The Nation of Islam,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cmdGOUumVY. The Combat Anti-Semitism Movement launched a campaign to have YouTube remove the speech.Ben Sales, “What is Fox Soul TV? And is it broadcasting a speech by Louis Farrakhan?,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, June 29, 2020, https://www.jta.org/2020/06/29/culture/what-is-fox-soul-tv-and-is-it-broadcasting-a-speech-by-louis-farrakhan; “Minister Louis Farrakhan’s July 4th Address: The Criterion,” YouTube video, 3:55:56, uploaded July 4, 2020, by “The Nation of Islam,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cmdGOUumVY; Cody Levine, “Jewish org. launches campaign to remove antisemitic Farrakhan speech,” Jerusalem Post, July 9, 2020, https://www.jpost.com/diaspora/jewish-org-launches-campaign-to-remove-antisemitic-farrakhan-speech-634500; Cassie Da Costa, “The Disturbing Rise of Anti-Semitism Among Black Celebs,” Daily Beast, https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-disturbing-rise-of-anti-semitism-among-black-celebs-from-diddy-and-nick-cannon-to-ice-cube?ref=scroll.

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