On May 23, 2017, Philippine soldiers launched an operation in the city of Marawi in search of Isnilon Hapilon, then-leader of the pro-ISIS faction of Philippines-based terrorist group, Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). According to the Philippine army, government troops acted following reports that Hapilon was in Marawi to potentially unite with the Maute Group, an ISIS-linked rebel group based in the city. Soldiers and Maute militants continue to clash two weeks later as rebels seized control over large parts of Marawi. Local media reported that the Maute militants burned the Marawi jail and Dansalan College and attacked the Amai Pakpak Hospital. President Rodrigo Duterte subsequently declared martial law on the entire island of Mindanao where the city is located. (Sources: PhilStar, ABS-CBN News, ABS-CBN News)

According to Philippine intelligence, as many as 40 of the 400-500 ISIS-linked fighters in Marawi traveled from abroad to support the terrorists’ siege of Marawai. On October 17, 2017, the day after militant leaders Hapilon and Omarkhayam Maute were killed, Duterte announced that the military successfully “liberated” Marawi from terrorist influence. On October 23, Philippine Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana announced that all combat operations in the city were terminated. During a joint session in December, the Philippine Congress voted to extend martial law on the island of Mindanao through the end of December 2018. (Sources: New York Times, Reuters, New York Times, Rappler, Philippine News Agency)

Overview

Both Communist nationalist rebels and Islamic separatist insurgencies have wreaked havoc on the Philippines, especially on the southern island of Mindanao. As a result, several thousands of Filipinos have been murdered in bombings, assassinations, kidnapping attempts, and executions.

Thousands of Filipinos have been murdered in bombings, assassinations, kidnapping attempts, and executions.

Some of the high profile attacks in the Philippines involved the kidnapping and execution of foreigners, including Western missionaries and tourists. For example, in May 2001 the Islamic separatist Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) beheaded an American hostage after the demanded ransom payment was not delivered. In April and June 2016, ASG militants beheaded Canadian hostages John Ridsdel and Robert Hall, respectively. In September 2014, ASG kidnapped a German doctor and his companion who were traveling on a yacht between Malaysia and the Philippines. ASG threatened to execute the hostages unless Germany paid a ransom and ceased supporting U.S.-led airstrikes against ISIS. The two hostages were eventually released. (Sources: Guardian, BBC News,  New York Times, Asian Journal

The Philippine government considers the Communist People’s Party (CPP) and its armed wing, the New People’s Army (NPA), to be one of the most significant internal security threats. Unlike the Islamic extremists who are concentrated primarily in Mindanao, the NPA has members throughout the country including in the capital city of Manila. According to an Institute for Economics and Peace’s Global Terrorism Index 2014, the NPA was the “largest individual group” suspected to be behind terrorist attacks in the Philippines. Both the CPP and NPA were designated foreign terrorist organizations by the United States on August 9, 2002. (Sources: Stratfor, Combatting Terrorism Center, U.S. Department of State)

Philippine military and police forces have struggled in dealing with extremist groups. The struggles stem from a lack of capacity, poor coordination, and geographical obstacles. However, the government has made efforts to restructure and strengthen its counterterrorism measures in cooperation with the United States and its Southeast Asian neighbors. Through military and economic initiatives, the Philippines has increased its capability to constrain violent activity and reduce financing for extremist groups like the NPA, ASG, and Jemaah Islamiyah. (Sources: U.S. Department of State, Financial Action Task Force)

Radicalization and Foreign Fighters

Communist People’s Party

The Philippines’ longest-running extremist conflict is with the Communist People’s Party (CPP) and its military wing the New People’s Army (NPA). Jose Maria Sison, a student activist in Manila, established the CPP in 1968 after being expelled from the existing Communist party, the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP). The CPP’s ideology is based heavily on Maoist thought and singled out U.S. imperialism, capitalism, and feudalism as issues to be confronted via revolution or a “protracted people’s war,” rooted in the peasantry. Unlike Islamist groups that are located primarily in the southern Philippines, the CPP has a presence in Manila and is active throughout the country. (Source: CTC Sentinel, International Crisis Group)

During President Rodrigo Duterte’s first month in office in July 2016, he took action to establish peaceful relations with the Communists. President Duterte made promises to release political prisoners and issued offers for positions in his administration for those who are willing to join peace talks. On August 25, 2016, Duterte declared a ceasefire with the CPP and NPA, and ordered the Philippine military and police forces to abide by the declaration. The first round of formal peace talks between the Communists and the Duterte administration were held in Oslo, Norway from August 22-28, 2016. However, in July 2017, following attacks by the NPA on government forces in Mindanao, Duterte declared that he will no longer be negotiating a peace deal with the Communists. In August 2017, CPP announced that it would no longer cooperate with Duterte and declared that “the people have no other recourse but to tread the path of militant struggle,” responding to the extension of martial law in Mindanao. (Sources: GMA News, ABS-CBN News, Inquirer, Rappler, PhilStar)

Moro National Liberation Front

Established in 1971 to fight for an independent Moro (Islamic) state in Mindanao, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was the first Islamic extremist group in the Philippines. Filipino Muslims refer to themselves as Moro, which is a derivation of the word ‘Moor,’ a derogatory term used by Spanish colonialists to refer to Islamic North Africans. The term was then adopted by the Christian majority of the Philippines to describe their Muslim neighbors in the southern islands of the country. After years of conflict, the MNLF signed a peace agreement with the Philippine government in 1996. The agreement granted autonomy to the people living in areas under the MNLF’s control, known as the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). (Source: BBC News, Republic of the Philippines Official Gazette)

The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) split from the MNLF in 1978 over leadership and strategic conflicts. Salamat Hashim, a member of the MNLF, was unhappy with the group’s agreement with the Philippine government, which allowed for an autonomous but not independent region in Mindanao. Hashim rallied more radical elements to breakaway and form the MILF. The MILF has been in negotiations with the Philippine government for over 18 years and has since denounced violence and terrorist acts. (Source: BBC News, The Economist, Reuters)

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) is the smallest, though most radical of the separatist groups in Mindanao.

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) is the smallest, though most radical of the separatist groups in Mindanao. ASG split from the MNLF in 1991, like the MILF, amidst criticism that the parent organization was weakening due to its willingness to enter into peace talks with the Philippine government. ASG is the most violent of the groups and is of most concern to Australia and United States, due to its ties to al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah. In a video posted on January 2016, a band of ASG members, using the group’s alternative name Harakatul Islamiyah (Islamic Movement), pledged allegiance to ISIS and named Isnilon Totoni Hapilon their new leader. Hapilon was on the FBI’s list of Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement with ASG. (Sources: Stanford University, BBC News, Manila Time)

President Duterte has promised to crackdown on extremist groups operating in the country, but has stated that he will uphold existing peace processes with the MNLF and MILF. Duterte has explicitly refused to negotiate with the more violent ASG, and on August 1, 2016, effectively shut the door on peace talks with the terror group. Duterte stated, “I will not deal with persons with extreme brutality. There is no… reason for me to sit down and talk with criminals.” (Source: GMA News)

ISIS

ASG and the closely aligned Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) pledged allegiance to ISIS, according to videos uploaded to YouTube on July 23, 2014. In another video posted in January 2016, a group of ASG members issued another formal pledge of allegiance to the terror group and named Hapilon as ASG’s leader and emir of ISIS in the Philippines. According to the Philippine’s defense secretary, ISIS contacted Hapilon in December 2016 and encouraged him to find an area to establish a base for ISIS operations in the Philippines. A January 2016 video released by ISIS suggested that the group’s leadership in Syria had confirmed Hapilon as the leader of ISIS in Southeast Asia. Several other Filipino extremist groups throughout Mindanao have also pledged allegiance to ISIS, including the Maute Group and Ansar Khalifah Philippines (AKP). (Sources: GMA News, National Defense College of the Philippines, Manila Times, Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict, Rappler)

In a November 28, 2016, statement, Duterte said that Philippine intelligence services confirmed that ISIS had connected with the Maute Group. The group, also known as the Islamic State in Lanao, was responsible for several terrorist incidents in Mindanao in 2016. On November 28, Philippine police discovered a bomb near the U.S. Embassy in a trash bin, believed to be planted by Maute militants. Four members were arrested the same day and were found to be carrying video clips of themselves pledging allegiance to ISIS. According to media reports, the Maute group is also responsible for the December 28, 2016, explosions on a town celebration in Leyte, an island in the middle of the country. Two bombs were reportedly detonated using a mobile phone, injuring 23 revelers. (Sources: Long War Journal, ABS-CBN News, Associated Press, NBC News, ABS-CBN News, GMA News)

On May 23, 2017, Maute rebels took siege of Marawi, following gunfight with the Philippine army and national police. According to authorities, the Maute Group was believed to be harboring Hapilon, who is allegedly ISIS’s leader in Southeast Asia and has been working to unite ISIS-supporters in the Philippines, including the Maute Group. Hapilon has since fled the city, abandoning the militants. Philippine intelligence reported that some of the ISIS-linked fighters in Marawi traveled from abroad, including from Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Middle East. The presence of foreign fighters raises concerns that the Philippines is becoming an ISIS hub. Official government figures report that 290 militants, 70 soldiers, and 27 civilians were killed with an additional 246,000 displaced between May 23 and June 27, 2017. (Sources: Standard, ABS-CBN News, Reuters, Reuters, ABS-CBN)

The “Bojinka” Plot

During the summer of 1994, 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM) and Ramzi Yousef began planning the Manila Air or “Bojinka” plot, a nonsense name KSM adopted after hearing it while in battle in Afghanistan. Part of the Bojinka plot was to bomb 12 U.S. commercial passenger planes over the Pacific Ocean in the span of two days. The two terrorists also planned to assassinate then-U.S. President Bill Clinton during his November 1994 trip to Manila and to bomb U.S.-bound cargo carriers by smuggling jackets with explosives on board.

In their shared Manila apartment, KSM and Yousef experimented with liquid explosives and invented remote trigger devices. The plot was ultimately foiled when Philippine authorities discovered the bomb-making endeavor on January 6, 1995. Yousef accidentally caused a fire to the makeshift laboratory in the apartment, which brought police to the scene. Authorities uncovered a laptop with detailed plans of the Bojinka plot. According to Michael Garcia, the former U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York and prosecutor in Yousef’s case, KSM and Yousef were mere weeks from executing the plan. 

Yousef was able to escape to Islamabad, Pakistan. He was later captured by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in February 1995 and extradited to the United States. He was indicted for the Bojinka plot, along with accomplices Abdul Hakim Murad and Wali Khan Amin Shah. They were charged in a New York federal court with seven counts of attempting to bomb 12 passenger planes. (Sources: 9/11 Commission Report, New York Times, CNN)

Foreign Fighters

In March 2014, former Philippine President Aquino received reports that two Filipino Muslims died in Syria in late 2013. They were reportedly fighting against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his regime. The specific opposition group remains unclear. In December 2013, an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) working in Syria saw two dead anti-Assad fighters in the streets. A Syrian government soldier informed the OFW that the dead fighters were members of the Abu Sayyaf Group. (Sources: Reuters, Rappler, FARS News Agency, Asian Pacific Post)

A Filipino ISIS member is believed to have taken part in ISIS’ beheading of 18 Syrian Air Force pilots and American citizen Peter Kassig.

In September 2014, a Philippine intelligence official revealed that the government began investigating the involvement of Filipinos Islamists in Syria, possibly fighting for ISIS. Young Filipino Muslims may also have returned from Syria and Iraq to radicalize others in the Philippines. The leaked government report said that 100 Filipinos went to Iran to undergo military training and were later deployed to Syria. (Sources: Reuters, Rappler, FARS News Agency, Asian Pacific Post)

A Filipino ISIS member is believed to have taken part in ISIS’ beheading of 18 Syrian Air Force pilots and American citizen Peter Kassig. The executions were captured on a November 2014 video. Reports cited an unnamed Kurdish source confirming the participation of a Filipino ISIS member. In a May 2015 video produced by al-Hayat Media Center and published by ISIS supporters on Twitter, the same ISIS fighter is shown sitting in a military vehicle sporting an ISIS flag. In the 30-second video, he encourages his fellow Filipino jihadists to immigrate and join ISIS in Iraq and Syria. (Sources: PhilStar, Daily Mail, IraqiNews)

In August 2016, a Filipina woman was arrested in Kuwait who was suspected of having ties to ISIS’s affiliate in Libya. Kuwaiti security forces purportedly found email messages where she pledged allegiance to the terror group. The suspect also allegedly communicated with her husband in Libya via the Telegram encrypted messaging app. The unidentified woman, who moved to Kuwait in June to work as a house maid, reportedly admitted she planned to launch an attack. (Sources: Al-Arabiya, Associated Press, ABS-CBN News)

Major Extremist and Terrorist Incidents

Since the 1970s, Islamists and Communist separatists have planned and executed numerous attacks throughout the Philippines, although the most deadly incidents have been concentrated on the southern island of Mindanao.

According to the Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents, the Philippines has suffered more than 593 attacks of varying degrees based on data collected between 1969 and 2010. From 2000 to 2007 alone, Islamic extremists carried out bomb attacks that killed over 400 Filipino civilians and injured over a thousand more. (Source: Human Rights Watch)

Leftist extremists, primarily associated with the Communist People’s Party (CPP) and the New People’s Army (NPA), have claimed an estimated 120,000 lives in more than 40 years of conflict with the government. The NPA reportedly had 3,800 guerillas active in the first half of 2016, according to a November 2016 estimate by the Associated Press. (Source: Al Jazeera, U.S. Department of State, Associated Press

Abu Sayyaf Group Terror Activities

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) is known for its brutality and targeting of civilians. ASG has also received global attention for its kidnap-for-ransom schemes targeting Westerners. On September 21, 2015, ASG militants abducted four hostages—Canadians Robert Hall and John Ridsdel, Norwegian Kjartan Sekkingstad, and Filipina Marites “Tess” Flor—from a resort on Samal Island in the south of the Philippines. ASG militants reportedly beheaded Ridsdel in April 2016 and Hall in June 2016 when their ransom demands were not met. The terror group freed Flor on June 24, 2016, as well as Sekkingstad on September 17, 2016, after a $630,000 ransom from an unidentified source was paid. (Sources: CNN, New York Times, CNN Philippines, BBC News, CNN Philippines, CNN Philippines, New York Times

In 2002, ASG’s relationship with al-Qaeda brought additional attention to the Philippines as a battleground for the Global War on Terror. The United States provided training and military assistance to the Philippine military and national police, taking out top ASG leaders such as Khadaffy Janjalani. In the summer of 2014, ASG leaders pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and ISIS, drawing focus back to the group’s presence in the southern Philippines and potential threat to the region. (Sources: Al Jazeera, Center for Strategic and International Studies, PhilStar)

Siege of Marawi

On May 23, 2017, Maute rebels took siege of Marawi, following gunfight with the Philippine army and national police. According to authorities, the Maute Group was believed to be harboring Hapilon, who was then-ISIS’s leader in Southeast Asia and allegedly working to unite ISIS-supporters in the Philippines, including the Maute Group. Philippine intelligence reported that some of the ISIS-linked fighters in Marawi traveled from abroad, including from Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Middle East. The presence of foreign fighters raised concerns that the Philippines could become an ISIS hub. (Sources: Standard, ABS-CBN News, Reuters, Reuters, ABS-CBN)

The Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict reported that ISIS funneled tens of thousands of dollars from Syria to militants in the Philippines in January 2017 in advance of the siege of Marawi. According to an October 2017 interview with the Philippine military chief, ISIS sent at least $1.5 million to finance the siege, and fighters used the 2014 ISIS capture of Mosul, Iraq as a blueprint. (Sources: Rappler, New York Times, Benar News, New York Times, Associated Press)

On October 16, 2017, Philippine government forces launched an offensive to recapture the last areas of Marawi held by militants, killing leaders Hapilon and Omarkhayam Maute. The following day, Duterte declared the city liberated. On October 23, after 154 days of the siege, Defense Secretary Lorenzana declared that the military had ceased combat operations in the city. The five-month siege reportedly left more than 1,100 fighters and civilians dead, including more than 900 militants, and has displaced at least 400,000 residents. The Philippine Congress voted on December 13, 2017 to grant President Duterte’s request to extend martial law on the southern island of Mindanao through the end of December 2018. (Sources: New York Times, Rappler)

 

Domestic Counter-Extremism

On February 19, 2007, the Congress of the Philippines passed the Republic Act No. 9372, also known as the “Act to Secure the State and Protect Our People from Terrorism,” or the “Human Security Act of 2007” for short. This is the main piece of counter-extremism legislation in the Philippines. The Act criminalizes and defines terrorism and other terms applicable under the law, such as accomplice or accessory. The Act also includes guidelines for surveillance and banking regulations to prevent terror funding. The Act also created the Anti-Terrorism Council the lead agency in implementing the Act. (Sources: Philippine Congress, Inquirer, U.N. Counter-Terrorism Committee)

Then-Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo also created the National Counter-Terrorism Action Group (NACTAG), under the supervision of the Anti-Terrorism Council, to assist in enforcing the Council’s regulations. Whereas the Anti-Terrorist Council oversees general implementation of the law, NACTAG is responsible for the actual investigation an evidence-finding for prosecutors in the event of a terrorist attack. (Sources: Philippine Congress, Inquirer, U.N. Counter-Terrorism Committee)

In 2013, the Philippines passes the Republic Act No. 10365 to amend the Anti-Money Laundering (AML) Act of 2001. It expanded the list of crimes under the Philippines AML regime to include financing terrorism. Financing terrorism is also a stand-alone crime under Republic Act No. 10168, known as “The Terrorism Financing Prevention and Suppression Act of 2012.” (Source: U.S. State Department, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines)

Security Agencies

According to the U.S. Department of State, Duterte has an Anti-Terrorism Council to provide guidance to counterterrorism agencies, but coordination between government agencies remains ineffective. Historically, the major counterterrorism security apparatus is the military, known as the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). However, on January 1, 2011, the Philippines government created the 2011-2016 Internal Peace and Security Plan. The AFP has begun to transition internal security functions, i.e. domestic terrorism, to the Philippine National Police (PNP) in order to increase the role and capability of the police in maintaining internal security enabling the AFP to shift its focus to maritime security and territorial defense. According to the U.S. State Department, Duterte’s focus of resources on anti-narcotics and counterterrorism operations stymied progress. (Sources: U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State)

Within the PNP, there is an elite force called the Special Action Force (SAF). The SAF is the tactical support unit of the PNP that deals with more high-level issues such as hostage crises, commando-type unconventional warfare. The group is known primarily for its counterterrorism operations and most recently for the botched January 2015 raid during which 43 elite officers were killed. (Source: Philippine National Police, Wall Street Journal)

The AFP, however, has been able to degrade ASG’s forces with the assistance of the U.S. Joint Specials Operations Task Force-Philippines (JSOTF-P). Recent estimates show that that ASG has approximately 300 fighters, down from its peak of 1,250 in 2000. The JSTOF-P mission provided counterterrorism training to the AFP until 2014. The United States officially ended JSOTF-P activities in June 2015, but has retained some personnel in the Philippines to provide “operational advice and assistance to higher levels of command” within the AFP. (Sources: Soufan Group, U.S. State Department, United States Naval Institute, Soufan Group

Counter Extremism Programs

The New Bilibid Prison, a maximum security prison, hosts a number of inmates from ASG and BIFF.

The Philippines has a counter-radicalization program called Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan (PAMANA), or Resilient Communities in Conflict Affected Communities. PAMANA is the government’s program on conflict resolution and development in conflict-affected areas throughout the Philippines. According to the organization’s most recent status report, PAMANA has launched programs that provide social protection for former combatants and their next-of-kin as well as support to indigenous people and other marginalized groups. For example, PAMANA sponsored a Health Insurance Program to cover former combatants from rebel groups that are included in peace agreements with the Philippine government. The Health Insurance Program was able to enroll 3,740 former militants in early 2015. For indigenous peoples, PAMANA has launched initiatives like the issuance of Certificate of Ancestral Domain Titles (CADTs) to support indigenous land claims, and quick response programs during emergencies. These programs are intended to foster sustainable peace and encourage capacity-building. (Sources: U.S. State Department, PAMANA)

The New Bilibid Prison, a maximum security prison under review with the Philippine Bureau of Corrections (BuCor), hosts a number of inmates from ASG and BIFF. The prison is at 165 percent capacity, a record high, and authorities are concerned that extremist inmates may radicalize others. The country’s Bureau of Jail Management and Penology tries to combat this threat by providing counter-radicalization programs in facilities where ASG members and other terror suspects are housed pending trial. (Sources: Inquirer, U.S. State Department)

International Counter-Extremism

The Philippines condemned the September 11, 2001, attacks against the United States, offering its ports and airports for use by U.S. naval vessels and military aircraft. Then-Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and then-U.S. President George W. Bush agreed to dispatch of U.S. military personnel to train the Philippine military in counterterrorism efforts against ASG. Under the bilateral Visiting Force Agreement of 1999, the two countries had agreed that the United States would provide training and other assistance to the Philippine Armed Forces. Since then, the Philippines has consistently allied with the United States to combat extremism domestically and pledge support for U.S. actions abroad. (Sources: Congressional Research Service, NBC News)

In September 2016, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte requested the complete removal of American troops from Mindanao and stated that the Philippines will review its policy of allowing American troops to combat terrorism in the country. U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines Philip Goldberg stated that the United States would like to remain involved in the Philippines’ campaign to combat Islamic militancy, expressing concern about any “new intrusion of ISIS or any other group that wants to take advantage of open space in the south of the Philippines.” Following the election of Donald Trump to the U.S. presidency, Duterte said he would no longer “quarrel” with the United States. (Sources: GMA News, Bloomberg, ABS-CBN News, Reuters)

Anti-ISIS Coalition

Speaking before the 26th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit in Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi, Malsaysia, Foreign Affairs Secretary Albert del Rosario expressed the government’s fear that Philippine security is under real threat from ISIS. In the same speech, del Rosario pledged that the Philippines would:

contribute in the fight against extremism, terrorism and crimes against humanity by engaging or cooperating with other countries in the areas of information sharing, joint investigations, educational campaigns, humanitarian assistance to victims, restricting flow of funds intended to finance terrorism, supporting resolutions aimed at curbing terrorism and enhancing local legislation to address terrorism. (Source: Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines)

The Philippines cosponsored United Nations Security Council Resolution 2178 on Foreign Terrorist Fighters and supported the ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Statement on the Violence and Brutality Committed by Extremist Organizations in Iraq and Syria. As of December 2016, the Philippines has implemented the U.N. Security Council ISIL (Da’esh) and al-Qa’ida sanctions regime and Taliban (1988) sanctions. (Sources: PhilStar, CNN, ASEAN, U.S. Department of State)

Maritime Cooperation

On May 5, 2016, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia agreed to coordinate policing of Southeast Asia’s shipping lanes following an increase in kidnappings by Islamic extremists. Foreign ministers and military chiefs from each country met days after the May 1 release of 10 Indonesian crewmen and a separate incident in which a Canadian hostage John Ridsdel was beheaded by ASG militants.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) is working to enhance the country’s maritime security given recent attacks at sea by Islamic militants in southern Philippines. There have been several high-profile kidnappings of Western and local nationals from tourist locales and shipping and fishing boats. The attacks were perpetrated mainly by ASG terrorists. Philippine, Indonesian, and Malaysian militaries have stated that they will apply lessons learned from patrolling other shipping lanes, like the Malacca Strait, to prevent further armed robbery and kidnapping at sea. (Source: Wall Street Journal, U.S. Department of State)

In January 2018, Duterte and Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi agreed that the two countries would increase bilateral cooperation on maritime security and anti-terrorism operations. The agreement included strengthening trade between the Philippines and Indonesia and launching an education program to spread Islamic values in Southeast Asian nations and to counter extremism. (Source: PhilStar)

Diplomatic and Financial Endeavors

As a member of ASEAN, the Philippines adopted the Langkawi Declaration on the Global Movement of Moderates (GMM) on April 27, 2015. The Declaration promotes moderation as an ASEAN value and enhances cooperation within ASEAN-led bodies to counter extremism, among other mandates. (Source: ASEAN)

In February 2015, key Filipino counterterrorism officials received advanced training on combatting terrorism financing from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Anti-Money Laundering Council (AMLC)’s Secretariat. (Source: UNODC)

The Philippines is also a member of the Asia Pacific Group (APG) on Money Laundering, which is modeled after the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), an inter-governmental body promoting policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. The Philippines has improved its anti-money laundering and counterterrorist finance regime. In June 2013, the FATF found that the Philippines was no longer subject to the FATF monitoring process, but would work with the APG to addresses ongoing issues. (Sources: Asia Pacific Group on Money Laundering, Financial Action Task Force)

Public Opinion

One major polling body in the Philippines, Social Weather Stations (SWS), has conducted surveys that measure public satisfaction with the government and public opinions on issues of national concern. In June 2016, SWS conducted a survey that measured Filipinos’ satisfaction with the government, including its efforts to restore peace in Mindanao and reconcile with Muslim and Communist rebels. Those surveyed gave the government a rating of “good” for “[r]estoring peace to Mindanao.” The government received a rating of “moderate” for its attempts at reconciling with Muslim and Communist rebels, an increase from a “neutral” rating in April 2016. (Source: Social Weather Stations (August 2016))

In August 2017, the Pew Research Center conducted a survey on top national security threats in the country. Approximately 70 percent of respondents in the Philippines believe that ISIS is a major threat to the country, making it the top threat concern compared to other issues such as climate change. (Source: Pew Research Center