Overview

Also Known As:

Executive Summary:

Hizb ut-Tahrir (HT), meaning “Party of Liberation,” is an international Islamist movement seeking to unite Muslims under one Islamic caliphate.Zeyno Baran, “The Challenge of Hizb ut-Tahrir: Deciphering and Combating Radical Islamist Ideology,” Center for the National Interest, September 2004, xiii, accessed June 1, 2015, http://www.cftni.org/Program%20Briefs/PB%202004/confrephiztahrir.pdf (page discontinued).

Founded by Palestinian Taqiuddin al-Nabhani al-Filastyni in 1953, HT considers itself a non-violent political party.Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Center for Social Cohesion, November 2009, 4, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf.  HT states that its goal is to peacefully convert Muslim nations to Islamist political systems.“Definition: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir homepage, accessed June 3, 2015, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.org/index.php/en/def. HT praises the concept of jihad but insists that it does not use “material power to defend itself or as a weapon….”“Definition: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir homepage, accessed June 3, 2015, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.org/index.php/en/def. The group publicly disavows efforts to achieve its goals of a caliphate through violent means.“Press Release 20150531: Conference in Chicago,” Hizb ut-Tahrir America, May 31, 2015, https://hizb-america.org/press-release-20150531-conference-in-chicago/.

HT has been banned in at least 13 countries worldwide.

However, some of the group’s members have been linked to violent acts in multiple countries. Some have been involved in coup attempts in the Middle East,Zeyno Baran, “The Challenge of Hizb ut-Tahrir: Deciphering and Combating Radical Islamist Ideology,” Center for the National Interest, September 2004, xiii, accessed June 1, 2015, http://www.cftni.org/Program Briefs/PB 2004/confrephiztahrir.pdf (page discontinued). the murder of a pro-secularist blogger in Bangladesh,Saad Hamadi and Mark Tran, “Bangladesh Authorities Arrest Man Over Atheist Blogger’s Murder,” Guardian (London), March 2, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/02/bangladesh-authorities-arrest-man-atheist-bloggers-murder-avijit-roy. and spreading anti-Western and Muslim-separatist propaganda in the West. HT maintains that its members are political dissidents.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing.

HT has been called a “conveyor belt for terrorists” by Zeyno Baran of the Hudson Institute.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Baran notes that HT members, once radicalized by the group’s ideology, are vulnerable to more explicit messages of militancy.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. One example is British HT member Omar Sharif, who attempted to blow up a Tel Aviv bar in 2003. British intelligence officers found HT literature in Sharif’s U.K. home.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Another example is ISIS fighter “Jihadi John” (now deceased), who reportedly attended events with HT speakers while in university in Great Britain.Sara Malm, “100 Members of Controversial Islamic Group Linked to Radicalised British Students Including Jihadi John Have ‘Joined Forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html.

HT chapters operate in more than 40 countries, but the group is banned in many Muslim-majority countries, including Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. The group is also banned in China and Russia.Uthman Badar, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Is It Now An Offence to Oppose Government Policy? If So, Let It Be Said Plainly,” Guardian (London), February 23, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/feb/23/hizb-ut-tahrir-is-it-now-an-offence-to-oppose-government-policy-if-so-let-it-be-said-plainly. According to Baran, HT’s British chapter in London is the “nerve center” of the international movement.Zeyno Baran, “The Challenge of Hizb ut-Tahrir: Deciphering and Combating Radical Islamist Ideology,” Center for the National Interest, September 2004, xiv, accessed June 3, 2015, http://www.cftni.org/Program%20Briefs/PB%202004/confrephiztahrir.pdf (page discontinued).

While HT promotes the concept of a caliphate, it does not recognize the so-called caliphate created by ISIS. On July 2, 2015, HT Britain published a statement denouncing ISIS’s June 2014 declaration of an Islamic state because ISIS lacked the authority to create or secure a caliphate in Syria.“Media Statement Regarding ISIS’s Declaration in Iraq,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain, July 2, 2014, http://www.hizb.org.uk/current-affairs/media-statement-regarding-isiss-declaration-in-iraq. Nevertheless, British HT members have reportedly joined ISIS and other militant Islamist groups in the Middle East.Mary Anne Weaver, “Her Majesty’s Jihadists,” New York Times Magazine, April 14, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/magazine/her-majestys-jihadists.html. Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott accused HT of nurturing “extremism in our suburbs,” claiming that the group justifies terrorism and inspires young men to join jihadist activities in Syria and Iraq.Michael Safi, “Hizb ut-Tahrir insists it rejects violence following Abbott’s ‘desperate’ accusation,” Guardian (London), February 19, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/feb/20/hizb-ut-tahrir-insists-it-rejects-violence-following-abbotts-desperate-accusation.

British prime ministers Tony Blair and David Cameron called for banning HT in 2009 and 2011, respectively.Blair resigned the British premiership in 2007, before he called for banning HT. Cameron was the incumbent prime minister when he called for banning the group. However, the U.K. government’s counter-terrorism watchdog submitted a report to Parliament in 2011 recommending against banning HT.Shiv Malik, “Watchdog Recommends Tory U-turn on Banning Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 18, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2011/jul/18/watchdog-tory-uturn-hizb-ut-tahrir-ban. The British Home Office has also ruled that HT does not advocate violence and that Britain cannot ban the group for having unpopular ideas.“Hizb ut-Tahrir: Should Britain Ban Radical Islamist Group?,” Week (London), March 19, 2015, http://www.theweek.co.uk/63010/hizb-ut-tahrir-should-britain-ban-radical-islamist-group#ixzz3aV8GYz15;
Shiv Malik, “Watchdog recommends Tory U-turn on banning Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 18, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2011/jul/18/watchdog-tory-uturn-hizb-ut-tahrir-ban.
The Home Office did concede, however, that HT is anti-Semitic, homophobic, and anti-Western.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing.

Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s failure to ban HT in that country prompted his government to propose a law prohibiting speech deemed “advocacy to genocide.”Daniel Meers, “Turnbull won’t be kicking Hizb-ut-Tahrir from Australia,” Daily Telegraph (Sydney), October 5, 2015, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/turnbull-wont-be-kicking-hizb-ut-tahrir-from-australia/story-fni0cx12-1227558101202;
Michael Safi, “‘Advocating genocide’ to be crime under proposed new national security laws,’” Guardian (London), September 3, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/sep/04/advocating-genocide-to-be-new-under-new-national-security-laws.
Attorney General George Brandis said the proposed law was aimed at groups like HT. In September 2015, Brandis and the Abbott government announced the “advocacy to genocide” legislation as part of a package to be introduced in parliament in November.Michael Safi, “‘Advocating genocide’ to be crime under proposed new national security laws,’” Guardian (London), September 3, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/sep/04/advocating-genocide-to-be-new-under-new-national-security-laws;
Shalailah Medhora, “New national security laws to include offence of inciting genocide,” Guardian (London), October 13, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/oct/13/new-national-security-laws-to-include-offence-of-inciting-genocide.
However, later that month, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott for the leadership of Australia’s Liberal party and consequently, for the office of prime minister. Australia’s Daily Telegraph reported in October 2015 that the Turnbull government would abandon its predecessor’s attempts to ban HT and to advance the “advocacy to genocide” bill.Daniel Meers, “Turnbull won’t be kicking Hizb-ut-Tahrir from Australia,” Daily Telegraph (Sydney), October 5, 2015, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/turnbull-wont-be-kicking-hizb-ut-tahrir-from-australia/story-fni0cx12-1227558101202.

Doctrine:

HT seeks to establish a global caliphate and considers its Islamist ideology (based on the writings of the organization’s founder, Taqiuddin Nahbani) an alternative to both capitalism and secular democracy. HT insists that it seeks to reestablish the caliphate only in the Muslim world, not “in any of the western countries including the US.”“Press Release 20150531: Conference in Chicago,” Hizb ut-Tahrir America, May 31, 2015, https://hizb-america.org/press-release-20150531-conference-in-chicago/.  However, HT uses anti-Western propaganda to advance its Islamist objectives. For example, HT blames purported anti-Muslim discrimination in the West and violence against Muslims in Muslim-majority countries on Western domestic and foreign policies.Uthman Badar, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: is it now an offence to oppose government policy? If so, let it be said plainly,” Guardian (London), February 23, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/feb/23/hizb-ut-tahrir-is-it-now-an-offence-to-oppose-government-policy-if-so-let-it-be-said-plainly;
Jane Perlez, “London Gathering Defends Vision of Radical Islam,” New York Times, August 6, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/06/world/europe/06hizb.html.
HT proposes the restoration of a caliphate as a solution to the problems in the Middle East,Jane Perlez, “London Gathering Defends Vision of Radical Islam,” New York Times, August 6, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/06/world/europe/06hizb.html. with all Muslims living according to sharia under the rule of an Islamic caliphate.“About Us,” Hizb ut-Tahrir America, accessed November 24, 2015, https://hizb-america.org/about-us/.

HT seeks to erect a global caliphate.

The group’s strategy to create a global caliphate is divided into three phases. The first phase is to create a core Muslim leadership to guide HT. In the second phase, this core leadership reaches out to the broader Muslim community and convinces them to follow HT’s model of Islam.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council’s World Almanac of Islamism, last modified October 7, 2013, http://almanac.afpc.org/hizb-ut-tahrir#. HT’s extensive outreach activities around the world indicate that the group is currently focusing on this second phase of its strategy.

The third and final stage of HT’s mission is regime change. Once HT has obtained sufficient public support for its vision of a caliphate, HT expects that support to facilitate a peaceful transition to Islamist rule. HT doctrine officially eschews violence and believes “Islamic law forbids violence or armed struggle against the regime as a method to reestablish the Islamic State.”Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Centre for Social Cohesion, November 2009, 18, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf. Only the caliph of the Islamic state—a position that does not yet exist—can declare jihad under HT doctrine. Further, HT believes “military struggle is not the method of reestablishing the Caliphate.”Emmanuel Karagianni and Clark McCauley, “Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami: Evaluating the Threat Posed by a Radical Islamic Group That Remains Nonviolent,” Terrorism and Political Violence 18, no. 2 (2006): 325, https://www.academia.edu/2002039/Hizb_ut-Tahrir_al-Islami_Evaluating_the_threat_posed_by_a_radical_Islamic_group_that_remains_nonviolent.

However, HT does not foreclose the possibility that a transition to Islamist rule could also transpire through a military coup if, for example, enough soldiers were converted to HT’s worldview. Despite hoping for military support to overthrow current regimes, HT still positions itself as a non-violent movement, HT’s doctrine considers military intervention to be outside help (nusrah) since the military is not a direct arm of HT.Emmanuel Karagianni and Clark McCauley, “Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami: Evaluating the Threat Posed by a Radical Islamic Group That Remains Nonviolent,” Terrorism and Political Violence 18, no. 2 (2006): 326, https://www.academia.edu/2002039/Hizb_ut-Tahrir_al-Islami_Evaluating_the_threat_posed_by_a_radical_Islamic_group_that_remains_nonviolent. Analysts studying the HT movement have implicated HT members in failed military coups in Jordan (1968 and 1969) and Egypt (1974).“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council’s World Almanac of Islamism, last modified October 7, 2013, http://almanac.afpc.org/hizb-ut-tahrir#. However, HT members did not provide any military support for these coups. In the case of Jordan, HT members allegedly encouraged members of the military to overthrow the government.Emmanuel Karagianni and Clark McCauley, “Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami: Evaluating the Threat Posed by a Radical Islamic Group That Remains Nonviolent,” Terrorism and Political Violence 18, no. 2 (2006): 326, https://www.academia.edu/2002039/Hizb_ut-Tahrir_al-Islami_Evaluating_the_threat_posed_by_a_radical_Islamic_group_that_remains_nonviolent.

Since HT presents Islam as an exclusive socio-political system superior to secularism and democracy,Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Centre for Social Cohesion, November 2009, 28, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf. the group urges Muslims to detach themselves from any secular or nationalist loyalties. To that end, HT spreads an Islamist narrative of Muslim grievance and victimhood,Husain Haqqani, “Muslims Must Shed Their Narrative of Grievance,” Telegraph (London), January 12, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/11340445/Muslims-must-shed-their-narrative-of-grievance.html. oversimplifying the complex global socio-political environment into a single, simple narrative: the West opposes Islam.Martha Crenshaw, “The Debate Over ‘Old’ vs. ‘New’ Terrorism,” in Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American Experiences, ed. Rick Coolsaet (Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate, 2011), 64. This narrative can result in an identity crisis for some Muslims, which opens the door for their radicalization, according to a 2007 radicalization study from Denmark’s justice ministry.Tomas Precht, “Home grown terrorism and Islamist radicalization in Europe,” Danish Ministry of Justice (December 2007), 52, 66, http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/sites/default/files/media/Arbejdsomraader/Forskning/Forskningspuljen/2011/2007/Home_grown_terrorism_and_Islamist_radicalisation_in_Europe_-_an_assessment_of_influencing_factors__2_.pdf. One possible example of HT-inspired radicalization is the case of 15-year-old Farhad Jabbar in Parramatta, Australia. Jabbar shot and killed a police accountant in October 2015 and reportedly attended an HT event the morning of the shooting.Patrick Begley, “Parramatta shooting: Hizb ut-Tahrir denies link, blames government for violence,” Sydney Morning Herald, October 5, 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/parramatta-shooting-hizb-uttahrir-denies-link-blames-government-for-violence-20151005-gk1kll.html#ixzz3rCKUp7XF. HT Australia denied that Jabbar is a member and condemned the shooting, but it also called “western foreign and domestic policy” the “real cause of violence.”Patrick Begley, “Parramatta shooting: Hizb ut-Tahrir denies link, blames government for violence,” Sydney Morning Herald, October 5, 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/parramatta-shooting-hizb-uttahrir-denies-link-blames-government-for-violence-20151005-gk1kll.html#ixzz3rCKUp7XF.

HT promotional materials have called for violence against Jews.

Despite its official non-violent stance, HT has called for violence against Jews. In 2002, HT leaflets found in Denmark urged Muslims to kill Jews “wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have been [sic] turned you out.” A BBC report quoted the HT leaflet further: “The Jews are a people of slander...a treacherous people... they fabricate lies and twist words from their right context.”Imran Khan, “Hizb ut-Tahrir,” BBC News, August 27, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/3182271.stm. In 2003, similar anti-Semitic rhetoric resulted in the group being banned from many university campuses in Britain and a complete ban of the group in Germany.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing

HT supports not only violence against Jews in general but offensive jihad against Israel in particular.Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Centre for Social Cohesion, November 2009, 28, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf. HT believes Israel has “occupied Islamic lands”—lands once ruled by Islamic law. Accordingly, HT believes those lands should return to governance by Islamic law and supports jihad as a means to that end.Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Centre for Social Cohesion, November 2009, 28, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf.

Accordingly, HT views violent acts against Israel as legitimate political protest until Israel no longer exists. The organization’s literature has supported Islamist suicide bombers in Israel, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing. In 1994, HT’s global leader, Ata Abu Rashta, reiterated this point when he declared that Jews who came to Palestine after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire have no right to live there. He called for all Jews of fighting age in Israel to be “killed until none survive.”Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Centre for Social Cohesion, November 2009, 28, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf.

At least one HT-related person has attempted a suicide bombing in Israel. British citizen Omar Khan Sharif was reportedly affiliated with an HT splinter group.Shiv Malik, “NS Profile – Omar Sharif,” New Statesman, April 24, 2006, http://www.newstatesman.com/node/164197;
Jonathan Spyer, “A ‘Rising Force,’” Haaretz (Tel Aviv), December 6, 2007, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/opinion/a-rising-force-1.234723.
He began attending HT meetings while at King’s College in London.Shiv Malik, “NS Profile – Omar Sharif,” New Statesman, April 24, 2006, http://www.newstatesman.com/node/164197. Sharif reportedly followed former HT leader Omar Bakri Mohammed to his new group, al-Muhajiroun.Shiv Malik, “NS Profile – Omar Sharif,” New Statesman, April 24, 2006, http://www.newstatesman.com/node/164197. On April 30, 2003, Sharif and fellow British citizen Asif Muhammad Hanif attempted a suicide bombing at a Tel Aviv bar.“Details of April 30- 2003 Tel Aviv suicide bombing-3-Jun-2003,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, June 3, 2003, http://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2003/Pages/Details%20of%20April%2030-%202003%20Tel%20Aviv%20suicide%20bombing.aspx. Sharif’s explosives failed, but Hanif killed three and wounded 50.“Details of April 30- 2003 Tel Aviv suicide bombing-3-Jun-2003,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, June 3, 2003, http://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2003/Pages/Details%20of%20April%2030-%202003%20Tel%20Aviv%20suicide%20bombing.aspx. HT denied responsibility for radicalizing Sharif.Shiv Malik, “NS Profile – Omar Sharif,” New Stateman,April 24, 2006, http://www.newstatesman.com/node/164197.

On social issues, HT’s ideology is reactionary. HT dictates subservient roles for women, who are required to obtain their husbands’ permission to leave the house and cannot go outside wearing perfume.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing. HT’s doctrine also forbids homosexual acts and prohibits participation in other faiths’ celebrations, such as Christmas.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing.

Organizational Structure:

HT is a hierarchical organization with as many as one million members throughout 40 countries.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Each country has a local chapter. Each national chapter is led by an emir, who answers to HT’s overall emir, Ata Abu Rashta.Umm Mustafa, “Why I left Hizb ut-Tahrir,” New Statesman (London), February 28, 2008, http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2008/02/party-hizb-tahrir-members. While Abu Rashta moves freely and appears at HT events to speak, very little is known about his daily whereabouts. This is likely in order to keep him under the radar of authorities in countries where HT is banned, such as Jordan, where Abu Rashta has been detained in the past.“Profile: Ameer of Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Central Media Office, accessed March 30, 2016, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.info/en/index.php/site-sections/articles/8807.html.

Abu Rashta replaced Abdul Qadeem Zallum on April 13, 2003.“Great Scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence – ’Ata Abu Rashta: The Current Ameer of Hizb ut Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Bangladesh, June 27, 2014, http://www.ht-bangladesh.info/great-scholar-islamic-jurisprudence-ata-abu-rashta-current-ameer-hizb-ut-tahrir. Abu Rashta joined the HT movement in the 1950s, working with the group’s founder, Taqiuddin an-Nabhani. Abu Rashta became famous in Jordan for his public engagement, including his opposition to the 1991 Gulf War. “Profile: Ameer of Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Central Media Office, accessed March 30, 2016, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.info/en/index.php/site-sections/articles/8807.html. He has authored numerous works on religion and politics.“Great Scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence – ’Ata Abu Rashta: The Current Ameer of Hizb ut Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Bangladesh, June 27, 2014, http://www.ht-bangladesh.info/great-scholar-islamic-jurisprudence-ata-abu-rashta-current-ameer-hizb-ut-tahrir. He has spoken globally at HT conferences, including in Yemen, Indonesia, and Pakistan.“Profile: Ameer of Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Central Media Office, accessed March 30, 2016, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.info/en/index.php/site-sections/articles/8807.html. Abu Rashta has used these venues to support anti-Assad activities in Syria. In 2013, he made a public speech in Syria where he stated that global powers were intent on keeping Assad in power until Syria could become a client state.Ata Abu Rashta, “‘Economic Crises: Their Reality and Solutions from the Viewpoint of Islam,’” Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain, April 29, 2013, http://www.hizb.org.uk/real-change/economic-crises-by-sheikh-ata-abu-rashta. He has also called for the “destruction” of Jews in Israel, Russians in Chechnya, and Hindus in Kashmir.Dylan Welch, “Sydney Sheikh Stalled,” Sydney Morning Herald, November 15, 2011, http://www.smh.com.au/national/sydney-sheikh-stalled-20111114-1nfir.html#ixzz44P5NZfVb.

In each of HT’s chapters, men and women are encouraged to be active members of the movement but work separately in order to keep the genders apart. HT’s vision of a future Islamic state reserves the highest positions—including caliph, provincial governors, and defense minister—for men alone.American Foreign Policy Council, The World Almanac of Islamism: 2014 (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), 982. Once an Islamic state is established, the caliph would select a defense minister,American Foreign Policy Council, The World Almanac of Islamism: 2014 (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), 982. who would then enforce conscription to the caliphate’s army of all Muslim men over the age of 15. While women are encouraged to join and participate in HT, they are forbidden from filling leadership roles like defense minister.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf.

Some of the most active HT chapters are listed and described below:

United Kingdom:

HT Britain is the nerve center of the organization.

HT’s British chapter (HT Britain) is considered the nerve center of the global movement.Zeyno Baran, “The Challenge of Hizb ut-Tahrir: Deciphering and Combating Radical Islamist Ideology,” Center For The National Interest, September 2004, xiv, accessed June 3, 2015, http://www.cftni.org/Program%20Briefs/PB%202004/confrephiztahrir.pdf (site discontinued). HT’s operations in the United Kingdom are led by HT Britain’s chief executive, Dr. Abdul Wahid.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hope Not Hate, accessed on May 18, 2015, http://www.hopenothate.org.uk/hate-groups/ht/. HT’s spokesperson, Taji Mustafa, engages the media on behalf of the movement, and has spoken at HT conferences in other countries like Australia.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hope Not Hate, accessed on May 18, 2015, http://www.hopenothate.org.uk/hate-groups/ht/. Because HT is allowed to operate freely in Britain, HT Britain recruits members by hosting public conferences and panels, and by engaging with the British media on a regular basis. HT Britain also maintains a website, where its positions on foreign and domestic policy are made available through articles and video.

On both Twitter and Facebook, HT Britain has amassed over 11,000 followers.HT Britain Facebook page, accessed January 21, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/htbritain/.; HT Britain Twitter, accessed January 21, 2016, https://twitter.com/hizbuttahrir?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor. Local HT Britain chapters organize their own fundraising to support outreach efforts, such as printing and handing out leaflets in public spaces.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. HT has also benefited from government funding, including grants to run early education programs.Islamists who want to destroy the state get £100,000 funding,” Telegraph (London), October 25, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6427369/Islamists-who-want-to-destroy-the-state-get-100000-funding.html. The British government ended this funding program after media reports confirmed that HT members were using the funding to indoctrinate students with controversial HT ideology, including the belief that tolerance and integration are un-Islamic.Andrew Gilligan, “Council suspends funding to schools linked to Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Telegraph (London), October 10, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/6475214/Council-suspends-funding-to-schools-linked-to-Hizb-ut-Tahrir.html.

Individuals known to have been in contact with HT Britain have gone on to join more violent Islamist groups, including notorious ISIS executioner Mohammed Emwazi (Jihadi John).Sara Malm, “100 members of controversial Islamic group linked to radicalised British students including Jihadi John have ‘joined forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html.

United States:

HT operates freely in the United States, although the group keeps its leadership and membership numbers private. HT America recruits members by hosting periodic conferences and panels, as well as maintaining a website and social media accounts. The HT America website includes articles advocating its policy positions and information on upcoming events around the country.

HT America has over 20,000 followers on Facebook.

HT has amassed over 300 followers on Twitter, while the group’s Facebook page has over 20,000 followers.Hizb ut-Tahrir America Twitter account, accessed January 27, 2016, https://twitter.com/hizbamerica; Hizb ut-Tahrir America Facebook account, accessed January 27, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/Hizb-ut-Tahrir-America-1417722101865364/?nr. HT America has held multiple conferences across the United States over the years at such prominent venues as the Hilton hotel in Oak Lawn, Illinois.Hizb ut-Tahrir America website, accessed January 14, 2016, https://hizb-america.org/events/; Diane Macedo, “Islamic Supremacist Group Holds First U.S. Conference,” Fox News, July 17, 2009, http://www.foxnews.com/story/2009/07/17/islamic-supremacist-group-holds-first-us-conference.html. Other venues in Illinois, like the Chicago Marriott Oak Brook and the Meadows Club in Rolling Meadows, have canceled HT America events after receiving concerned calls from the public.John Keilman, Jonathan Bullington, “Islamic conference loses area venue for 3rd time in 4 years,” June 14, 2012, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-06-14/news/ct-met-islamic-conference-canceled-20120614_1_islamic-conference-islamic-law-hizb-ut-tahrir.; “Oak Brook Hotel Says No to Muslim Conference,” NBC Chicago News, July 12, 2010, http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local/Oakbrook-Hotel-Says-No-To-Muslim-Conference-98229839.html.

Australia:

HT Australia is led by Islamist cleric Ismail al-Wahwah.Taylor Auerbach, “Hizb ut-Tahrir leader Ismail Alwahwah calls for jihad against Jews in inflammatory video,” Daily Telegraph (Sydney), March 9, 2015, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/hizb-uttahrir-leader-ismail-alwahwah-calls-for-jihad-against-jews-in-inflammatory-video/news-story/ede1315c654f9b2420b507516b3d1e7f. Since HT is free to operate in Australia, HT has recruited members by hosting public conferences and panels, and by engaging regularly with Australian media. HT Australia also maintains a website, where the group posts content highlighting the movement’s philosophy, positions on political issues, and planned events in the country.Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia website, accessed January 29, 2016, http://www2.hizb-australia.org/.

The group also maintains a strong public profile on social media. Al-Wahwah has more than 3,000 followers on Facebook,Ismail Alwawah Facebook pacge, accessed January 14, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/ismail.alwahwah?fref=ts. and the group’s Facebook page has more than 9,000 likes.Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia Facebook page, accessed January 21, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/hizbaust. HT Australia’s media spokesperson, Uthman Badar, tweets regularly to more than 6,200 people.Uthman Badar Twitter Account, accessed January 21, 2016, https://twitter.com/uthmanb.

In October 2015, a 15-year-old who shot and killed a police accountant in Parramatta, Australia, had reportedly attended an HT discussion at his local mosque on the morning of the incident.Patrick Begley, “Parramatta shooting: Hizb ut-Tahrir denies link, blames government for violence,” Sydney Morning Herald, October 5, 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/parramatta-shooting-hizb-uttahrir-denies-link-blames-government-for-violence-20151005-gk1kll.html. In December 2014, Iranian-born Man Haron Monis took more than a dozen people hostage at Sydney’s Lindt Chocolat Café. Monis and two hostages were killed after a 16-hour standoff with police. Monis had attended a June 2014 HT lecture on the failings of the West.Dan Kedmey and David Stout, “3 Dead After Police Storm Sydney Café to End Hostage Crisis,” Time, December 15, 2014, http://time.com/3633134/sydney-hostage-martin-place-lindt-cafe-terrorism/;
Taylor Auerbach, “Lindt cafe gunman Man Haron Monis was honoured guest at Hizb ut-Tahrir’s Lakemba hate-fest,” Daily Telegraph (Sydney), March 17, 2015, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/lindt-cafe-gunman-man-haron-monis-was-honoured-guest-at-hizb-ut-tahrirs-lakemba-hate-fest/story-fnpn118l-1227265393578.

Denmark:

HT Denmark was founded in 2000 by former HT member Maajid Nawaz, and others.Houriya Ahmed, Hannah Stuart,“Hizb ut-Tahrir: Ideology and Strategy,” Henry Jackson Society, accessed February 4, 2016, 71, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIZB.pdf. Today, the group is popularized by its spokesperson Junes Kock.

The Copenhagen-based branch of HT considers itself a regional office as indicated by its name HT Scandinavia.Kirstine Sinclair, “The Caliphate as Homeland: Hizb ut-Tahrir in Denmark and Britain,” Centre for Contemporary Middle East Studies Institute for History and Civilization University of Southern Denmark, accessed February 4, 2016, 12, http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/0/D/1/%7B0D1B4B59-9755-44EB-887E-90595D8D461D%7DKirstine%20Sinclair%20ph%20d%20afhandling.pdf. Outside of Denmark, HT Scandinavia has hosted events and distributed leaflets in Stockholm, Sweden.“Delegation fra Hizb ut-Tahrir Skandinavien til den bengalske ambassade i Stockholm,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Sacndinavia website, accessed February 11, 2016, http://hizb-ut tahrir.dk/video/index.php#menuid=0&materialid=195&videoid=537&counter=0; “Muslims urged to reject "western democracy," Sveriges Radio, September 12, 2014,  http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=2054&artikel=5963422. HT Scandinavia has a website that highlights the group’s work, policy positions, and planned events in the region.HT Denmark website, accessed February 4, 2016, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.dk/. On Facebook, the group has amassed more than 4,000 likes.Facebook Scandinavia website, accessed February 4, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/hizbskandinavien2.

Since its founding, HT’s operations in Denmark have been steeped in controversy. In 2003, former HT spokesperson in Denmark Fadi Abdelatif served a 60-day suspended sentence for distributing anti-Semitic propaganda.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” BBC News, August 27, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/3182271.stm. Moreover, while HT Scandinavia is not proscribed in Denmark, HT Scandinavia speeches are at times inflammatory. Danish MPs have discussed banning HT in Denmark in 2008 and 2015.“Denmark looks to ban Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Local (Stockholm), February 26, 2015, http://www.thelocal.dk/20150226/denmark-looks-to-ban-islamic-group-hizb-ut-tahrir.

HT’s Danish leadership frequently focuses its attention on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.Kirstine Sinclair, “Globale dromme, nationale virkeligheder. Hizb ut-Tahrir i Danmark og Storbritannien anno 2008’,” Den Ny Verden – Tidsskrift for internationale studier, Vol. 41, No. 1 Kobenhavn, 7; Kirstine Sinclair, “The Caliphate as Homeland: Hizb ut-Tahrir in Denmark and Britain,” accessed February 9, 2016, 7, http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/0/D/1/%7B0D1B4B59-9755-44EB-887E-90595D8D461D%7DKirstine%20Sinclair%20ph%20d%20afhandling.pdf. On February 14, 2015, Imam Hajj Saeed spoke at an HT Scandinavia event, wherein he denounced interfaith dialogue. He also implied that since Islam’s prophet Muhammad waged war with the Jews in Medina, it was permissible to do the same today.“Copenhagen Imam on Eve of Terror Attack: The Prophet Engaged in War, Not Dialogue, with the Jews,” MEMRI TV Videos Youtube, posted February 18, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VsDOI1p-8w&feature=youtu.be. Saeed’s sermon was delivered the day before a terrorist attack in Copenhagen, wherein 22-year-old gunman Omar El-Hussein killed two, and injured five, while attempting to enter a cultural center that was hosting a free speech event.“Copenhagen gunman’s identity confirmed: police,” Local (Stockholm), February 18, 2015, http://www.thelocal.dk/20150218/police-confirm-copenhagen-gunmans-identity.

Netherlands:

Not much is publicly known about HT leadership in the Netherlands, though it is known to include media representative Okay Pala. On Twitter, Pala has accrued more than 3,000 followers. The HT Netherlands Facebook page has more than 5,000 likes.Hizb ut-Tahrir Netherlands Facebook page, accessed February 5, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/hizbnl/?fref=ts. HT Netherlands also maintains a website, where the group highlights its policy positions, activities, and planned events in the country.Hizb ut-Tahrir Netherlands website, accessed February 4, 2016, http://hizb-ut-tahrir.nl/.

While the organization is allowed to operate in the Netherlands, some private venues in the country have been unwilling to host HT events, including the Rotterdam-Zuid community center De Put, which rejected hosting an HT panel in September 2015.Janene Pieters, “ROTTERDAM BLOCKS “RADICAL” ISLAMIST LECTURE, DISCUSSION,” NL Times (Amsterdam), September 15, 2015, http://www.nltimes.nl/2015/09/15/rotterdam-blocks-radical-islamist-lecture-discussion/. HT has persisted in its recruitment and publicity strategy by handing out HT literature in Dutch in Rotterdam.Janene Pieters, “ROTTERDAM BLOCKS “RADICAL” ISLAMIST LECTURE, DISCUSSION,” NL Times (Amsterdam), September 15, 2015, http://www.nltimes.nl/2015/09/15/rotterdam-blocks-radical-islamist-lecture-discussion/.

Australia, the U.K., and Netherlands have each sought to ban HT.

Consequently, Netherlands has attempted to ban HT as early as 2003.“Annual Report 2004,” General Intelligence and Security Service, 26, accessed February 10, 2016, https://fas.org/irp/world/netherlands/aivd2004-eng.pdf. A 2004 report by the Netherland’s General Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD) stated that the Danish Ministry found HT could not be banned because the group was not committing any illegal acts.“From dawa to jihad: The various threats from radical Islam to the democratic legal order,” General Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD), accessed February 9, 2016, 42, https://fas.org/irp/world/netherlands/dawa.pdf.

Pakistan:

HT is not allowed to operate in Pakistan. Nevertheless, the organization remains active on social media and through outreach efforts that primarily target members of the military and educated classes.Michael Kugelman, “Another Threat in Pakistan, in Sheep’s Clothing,” New York Times, August 3, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/04/opinion/hizb-ut-tahrir-threatens-pakistan-from-within.html?_r=1. HT Pakistan engages the public regularly through its website and social media activity. HT Pakistan’s Twitter account has more than 5,000 followers,Hizb ut-Tahrir Pakistan Media Office Twitter account, accessed January 22, 2016, https://twitter.com/htmediapak. and its Facebook page has more than 5,500.Hizb ut-Tahrir Pakistan Media Office Facebook page, accessed March 17, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/HTmediaPAK4/?fref=photo. Pakistani authorities periodically arrest HT members despite the group’s ban in 2003.Imran Ayub, “Engineer belonging to Hizbut Tahrir arrested for distributing pamphlets,” Dawn, October 7, 2015, http://www.dawn.com/news/1211330/engineer-belonging-to-hizbut-tahrir-arrested-for-distributing-pamphlets. For example, the group maintains that the Pakistani government abducted its leader, Naveed Butt, in 2012, and has since been advocating for his release.“HuT Spokesman Abducted,” Express Tribune (Karachi), May 12, 2012, http://tribune.com.pk/story/377573/hut-spokesman-abducted/.

The New York Times noted in 2012 that “special concern arose in Pakistan” after an army brigadier named Ali Khan was charged in 2011 with “having ties to HT, and of conspiring to overthrow the [Pakistani] government.”Michael Kugelman, “Another Threat in Pakistan, in Sheep’s Clothing,” New York Times, August 3, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/04/opinion/hizb-ut-tahrir-threatens-pakistan-from-within.html?_r=1. Khan and four others were convicted in 2012.“Brig Ali Khan, four army officers convicted over Hizbut Tahrir links,” Dawn, August 3, 2012, http://www.dawn.com/news/739474/brig-ali-khan-four-other-officers-convicted-in-mutiny-case. The incident highlights HT’s efforts to recruit Pakistan’s military leadership in hopes of replacing the government with a caliphate.

Bangladesh:

HT was banned in Bangladesh in 2009.Bangladesh Islamist Group Banned,” BBC News, October 23, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8321329.stm. Since then, HT continues its activities in the country, despite sporadic arrests of alleged members.“69 militants get deaths, 163 life terms, 244 jails,” Dhaka Tribune, January 1, 2016, http://www.dhakatribune.com/crime/2016/jan/01/69-militants-get-deaths-163-life-terms-244-jails. HT Bangladesh recruits members by hosting conferences and passing out HT literature in public.Kamrul Hasan, “Banned group holds conference as police remain witness,” Dhaka Tribune, September 4, 2015, http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2015/sep/04/banned-group-holds-conference-police-remain-witness#sthash.Phcm5tFa.dpuf;
“Dhaka University expels seven members of Hizb ut-Tahrir,” bdnews24.com, January 24, 2016, http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2016/01/24/dhaka-university-expels-seven-members-of-hizb-ut-tahrir.
HT Bangladesh also maintains a website. The group’s Facebook account has more than 1,200 followers.Hizb ut-Tahrir Bangladesh Facebook page, accessed January 22, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/Hizb-Ut-Tahrir-Bangladesh-288939457964716/.

At least one HT member in Bangladesh, Farabi Shafiur Rahman, is believed to be behind the murder of secular blogger Avijit Roy.Saad Hammadi and Mark Tran, “Bangladesh authorities arrest man over atheist blogger's murder,” Guardian (London), March 2, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/02/bangladesh-authorities-arrest-man-atheist-bloggers-murder-avijit-roy.

Malaysia:

HT Malaysia’s leadership includes spokesman Abdul Hakim Othman and vice president Sopian Jahir.Ikwhan Hazwan, “Hizbut Tahrir leaders puzzled over detention by police,” Rakyat Post (Kuala Lumpur), November 21, 2015, http://www.therakyatpost.com/news/2015/11/21/hizbut-tahrir-leaders-puzzled-over-detention-by-police/. HT operates freely in Malaysia, except in the province of Selangor, where HT was proscribed in September 2015.Abdul Hakim Othman, “Shameful Arrest by the Selangor Islamic Religious Department of the Spokesperson and Three Other Members of Hizb ut Tahrir Malaysia,” Khilafah.com, December 13, 2015, http://www.khilafah.com/shameful-arrest-by-the-selangor-islamic-religious-department-of-the-spokesperson-and-three-other-members-of-hizb-ut-tahrir-malaysia/. Outside of Selangor, HT recruits members by hosting periodic conferences and seminars.Abdul Hakim Othman, “Malaysia Khilafah Conference 2015,” Khilafah.com, October 7, 2015, http://www.khilafah.com/malaysia-khilafah-conference-2015/;
Dr. Nazreen Nawaz, “Hundreds of Women will Gather at a Critical Seminar in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, organised by Hizb ut Tahrir: ‘One Year On – Who will save the Rohingya Muslim women and children?’” Khilafah.com, July 6, 2013, http://www.khilafah.com/hundreds-of-women-will-gather-at-a-critical-seminar-in-kuala-lumpur-malaysia-organised-by-hizb-ut-tahrir-qone-year-on-who-will-save-the-rohingya-muslim-women-and-childrenq/.

HT Malaysia also maintains a website and official Twitter and Facebook accounts. The group’s Twitter account has more than 2,000 followersHT Malaysia Twitter account, accessed January 17, 2016, https://twitter.com/ht_msia. and its Facebook page has more than 13,000 likes.HT Malaysia Facebook page, accessed March 17, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/HTM1435/.

In November 2015, Malaysian authorities briefly arrested HT Malaysia’s former spokesperson, Abdul Hakim Othman, in connection to anti-American protests during President Obama’s visit to Malaysia that month.Ikwhan Hazwan, “Hizbut Tahrir leaders puzzled over detention by police,” Rakyat Post (Kuala Lumpur), November 21, 2015, http://www.therakyatpost.com/news/2015/11/21/hizbut-tahrir-leaders-puzzled-over-detention-by-police/. On September 17, 2015, the Islamic Religious Department of the Malaysian state of Selangor issued a fatwa outlawing HT Malaysia within its jurisdiction.Abdul Hakim Othman, “Shameful Arrest by the Selangor Islamic Religious Department of the Spokesperson and Three Other Members of Hizb ut Tahrir Malaysia,” Khilafah.com, December 13, 2015, http://www.khilafah.com/shameful-arrest-by-the-selangor-islamic-religious-department-of-the-spokesperson-and-three-other-members-of-hizb-ut-tahrir-malaysia/. Othman attempted to respond to the edict banning the group by holding a press conference in Selangor on December 4, 2015, but was arrested during the event.Abdul Hakim Othman, “Shameful Arrest by the Selangor Islamic Religious Department of the Spokesperson and Three Other Members of Hizb ut Tahrir Malaysia,” Khilafah.com, December 13, 2015, http://www.khilafah.com/shameful-arrest-by-the-selangor-islamic-religious-department-of-the-spokesperson-and-three-other-members-of-hizb-ut-tahrir-malaysia/. Othman was released later the same day.Abdul Hakim Othman, “Shameful Arrest by the Selangor Islamic Religious Department of the Spokesperson and Three Other Members of Hizb ut Tahrir Malaysia,” Khilafah.com, December 13, 2015, http://www.khilafah.com/shameful-arrest-by-the-selangor-islamic-religious-department-of-the-spokesperson-and-three-other-members-of-hizb-ut-tahrir-malaysia/.

Indonesia:

HT Indonesia’s spokesperson, Muhammad Ismail Yusanto has more than 24,000 followers on Twitter.M. Ismail Yusanto Twitter account, accessed January 22, 2016, https://twitter.com/ismailyusanto. Yusanto regularly engages Indonesian media to advocate HT positions in the country.Agence France-Presse, “Indonesian Muslim hardliners vow to stop miss world,” Al Arabiya, June 6, 2013, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/life-style/fashion-and-beauty/2013/06/06/Indonesian-Muslim-hardliners-vow-to-stop-miss-world.html. While membership numbers are unknown, HT events have included more than 100,000 attendees at some conferences.“Islamists Urge Caliphate Revival,” BBC News, August 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6942688.stm. HT Indonesia’s website is regularly updated with articles and videos addressing domestic and foreign politics and social issues from an HT perspective.Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia website, accessed January 22, 2016, http://hizbut-tahrir.or.id/.

Central Asia:

In Central Asia—including Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan—HT membership is estimated at between 20,000 and 100,000, with members typically including college students, teachers, the unemployed, and factory workers.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, 6, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. New members are also drawn through prison recruitment in Central Asia.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, 6, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Uzbekistan is believed to have as many as 8,000 HT members.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. In the late 1970s, HT outreach spread from Uzbekistan to neighboring Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. There, HT’s membership has expanded to include non-ethnic Uzbeks, ethnic Russians, and Koreans.Zeyno Baran, “Radical Islamists in Central Asia,” Hudson Institute, accessed January 22, 2016, 46, http://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/1366/baran_vol2.pdf.

HT financing in central Asia is believed to come from private donations and dues paid by members, with dues estimated at anywhere from 5 percent to 20 percent of a member’s monthly income.Zeyno Baran, “Radical Islamists in Central Asia,” Hudson Institute, accessed January 22, 2016, 43, http://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/1366/baran_vol2.pdf.

Financing:

HT appears to be funded through several means, including private donations and government subsidies, but few details about the group’s finances are public. Local chapters organize their own fundraising to support outreach efforts, such as printing and handing out leaflets in public spaces.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Operational costs appear low because many members do volunteer work. Donations are primarily raised in Europe, the Middle East, and Pakistan.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Pakistan recalled diplomatic envoy Mohammad Mazhar Khan from Bangladesh in March 2015 after receiving allegations that he had laundered money to HT and other Islamist militant groups in Bangladesh.“Pakistani Diplomat Withdrawn,” Daily Star (Dhaka), last updated March 8, 2015, http://www.thedailystar.net/pakistani-diplomat-withdrawn-63000.

HT has also benefited from government funding. For example, a British foundation run by HT members received government grants to run early education programs.“Islamists who want to destroy the state get £100,000 funding,” Telegraph (London), October 25, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6427369/Islamists-who-want-to-destroy-the-state-get-100000-funding.html. The British government ended the funding after media reports confirmed that HT members were teaching students HT ideology, including the belief that tolerance and integration are un-Islamic.Andrew Gilligan, “Council suspends funding to schools linked to Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Telegraph (London), October 10, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/6475214/Council-suspends-funding-to-schools-linked-to-Hizb-ut-Tahrir.html.

Recruitment:

Recruitment is crucial to HT’s overarching strategy. As a self-purported peaceful movement for regime change, HT must gain sufficient public support to realize that change. In countries where the group is not banned, HT outreach efforts include passing out literature in public spaces, organizing seminars,Ivan Hare and James Weinstein, Extreme Speech and Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 479; Houriya Ahmed and Hannah Stuart, “Profile: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Hudson Institute, August 17, 2010, http://www.hudson.org/research/9827-profile-hizb-ut-tahrir-in-the-uk-. and releasing pro-Islamist publications, such as The Institutions of State in the Khilafah [caliphate], online.Hizb ut-Tahrir, Institutions of State in the Khilafah, accessed September 17, 2015, http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.org/index.php/EN/books/. HT also operates websites in multiple languages that provide access to HT literature, such as political commentary and religious justifications for the movement’s worldview.

Conferences are another critical method for HT to spread its message. HT has held multiple conferences in the United States. In 2012, then–presidential candidate Michelle Bachmann questioned whether an HT event in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, was “subversive speech.” In 2009, protests were held in front of an HT event in Oak Lawn, Illinois.John Keilman and Jonathan Bullington, “Islamic conference loses area venue for 3rd time in 4 years,” Chicago Tribune, June 14, 2012, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-06-14/news/ct-met-islamic-conference-canceled-20120614_1_islamic-conference-islamic-law-hizb-ut-tahrir. In 2015, HT America held at least three “Khilafa [caliphate] conferences” in the United States. The conferences focus on answering questions surrounding a future Islamic caliphate. These questions include, “What is Khilafah,” “Why Khilafah,” “Who is Hizb ut-Tahrir,” and “How we work for Khilafah.”“2015 Washington DC Conference,” Hizb ut-Tahrir America, accessed June 18, 2015, https://hizb-america.org/2015-washington-dc-conference/.

In the United Kingdom, HT operates freely and publicly, holding conferences and conducting outreach programs at numerous U.K. universities. In 2003, the British Home Office concluded that it could not ban an HT conference in Birmingham that year since HT professed to be non-violent. Approximately 10,000 people attended.David Leigh, “Background: Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Guardian (London), July 22, 2005, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/jul/22/pressandpublishing.

HT outreach to students relies on access to campus events at universities. In the United Kingdom, HT recruits and maintains an active presence on university campuses. British media have reported that HT radicalized future ISIS fighter Mohammed Emwazi, a.k.a. “Jihadi John” (now deceased), and other future prominent jihadists before they traveled to fight in the Middle East.Sara Malm, “100 members of controversial Islamic group linked to radicalised British students including Jihadi John have ‘joined forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html. Emwazi attended Britain’s University of Westminster, where he was exposed to HT ideology through the university’s Islamic Society.Maajid Nawaz, “The Education of ‘Jihadi John,’” New York Times, March 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/opinion/the-education-of-jihadi-john.html. During Emwazi’s years as a student at the University of Westminster, the Islamic Society organized on-campus panels that included HT members as speakers.Sara Malm, “100 members of controversial Islamic group linked to radicalised British students including Jihadi John have ‘joined forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html. The university has been the subject of several accusations that HT has infiltrated its campus.Edward Malnick, “Mohammed Emwazi timeline: from school years with Tulisa Contostavlos to becoming Jihadi John,” Telegraph (London), February 26, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/islamic-state/11438747/Mohammed-Emwazi-timeline-from-school-years-with-Tulisa-Contostavlos-to-becoming-Jihadi-John.html. In 2011, for example, the student union elected a president with known ties to HT.Duncan Gardham, “Fears that university has been infiltrated by Islamist extremists,” Telegraph (London), April 12, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/8446562/Fears-that-university-has-been-infiltrated-by-Islamist-extremists.html.

British counter-extremism activist Maajid Nawaz is a former HT member who was drawn to the group as a teenager.Maajid Nawaz, “The Education of ‘Jihadi John,’” New York Times, March 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/opinion/the-education-of-jihadi-john.html. As a student at London’s Newham College, Nawaz continued to spread HT’s message until he was expelled when his self-appointed bodyguard stabbed and killed a non-Muslim student.Maajid Nawaz, “The Education of ‘Jihadi John,’” New York Times, March 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/opinion/the-education-of-jihadi-john.html. According to Nawaz, HT seeks to recruit members of student groups, such as the University of Westminster’s Islamic Society, and exploits freedom of speech to showcase speakers who “peddle a highly politicized, often violent strain” of Islam.Maajid Nawaz, “The Education of ‘Jihadi John,’” New York Times, March 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/opinion/the-education-of-jihadi-john.html.

Nawaz warns it “is easier than one might think for bright, capable people like Mr. Emwazi to fall for the myopic worldview of the preachers of hate. Young people from relatively prosperous, educated backgrounds have long been overrepresented in jihadist causes.”Maajid Nawaz, “The Education of ‘Jihadi John,’” New York Times, March 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/opinion/the-education-of-jihadi-john.html. In April 2011, for example, Westminster students elected Tarik Mahri and Jamal Achchi, both tied to HT, as president and vice president, respectively, of the student union.Duncan Gardham, “Fears that university has been infiltrated by Islamist extremists,” Telegraph (London), April 12, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/8446562/Fears-that-university-has-been-infiltrated-by-Islamist-extremists.html. As president of Westminster’s Global Ideas Society, Mahri had been instrumental in bringing HT speaker Jamal Harwood to campus.“Global Ideas Society President shares pictures from Hizb ut-Tahrir conference,” Student Rights, July 3, 2012, http://www.studentrights.org.uk/article/1937/global_ideas_society_president_shares_pictures_from_hizb_ut_tahrir_conference.

Dr. Alexandra Stein is a social psychologist specializing in extremist groups. While teaching at Westminster between 2007 and 2012, Stein noticed a “tremendous amount of recruiting” at the school.Emma Youle, “University of Westminster under fire for letting Islamic radicals recruit ‘like lambs to the slaughter,’” Hampstead & Highgate Express (London), May 28, 2015, http://www.hamhigh.co.uk/news/university_of_westminster_mohammed_emwazi_islamic_radicals_recruit_on_campus_1_4089771. Stein recalled female Muslim students telling her they had been pressured to wear veils and sit in the back of classrooms at university-sanctioned HT lectures.Emma Youle, “University of Westminster under fire for letting Islamic radicals recruit ‘like lambs to the slaughter,’” Hampstead & Highgate Express (London), May 28, 2015, http://www.hamhigh.co.uk/news/university_of_westminster_mohammed_emwazi_islamic_radicals_recruit_on_campus_1_4089771. Because of the university’s tolerance of HT campus activities, “students were being led like lambs to the slaughter,” according to Stein.Emma Youle, “University of Westminster under fire for letting Islamic radicals recruit ‘like lambs to the slaughter,’” Hampstead & Highgate Express (London), May 28, 2015, http://www.hamhigh.co.uk/news/university_of_westminster_mohammed_emwazi_islamic_radicals_recruit_on_campus_1_4089771.

HT also enjoys a strong presence in the Middle East and Asia. In central Asia, the group operates through underground channels, where estimates of membership numbers range from 20,000 to 100,000.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Recruits include college students and teachers, the unemployed, and factory workers. Central Asian authorities believe HT also recruits heavily in prisons.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf.

HT is particularly active in Indonesia and Malaysia. On August 12, 2007, HT hosted a Khilafa (caliphate) conference in Indonesia to discuss the need for a global Islamic state. Although several speakers canceled due to travel restrictions by Indonesia and other countries, the conference attracted approximately 100,000 participants. Organizers called it the largest gathering of Muslim activists in the world.“Islamists Urge Caliphate Revival,” BBC News, August 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6942688.stm.

Since the beginning of the Arab Spring, HT has intensified its recruitment efforts in the Middle East. Toppled dictatorships and ongoing civil wars have created voids in political leadership that HT hopes to fill.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. HT outreach includes efforts to highlight the humanitarian crisis created by the current conflicts. In March 2012, for example, HT hosted a women-only conference in Tunisia. HT organized a protest in Aleppo, Syria on November 9, 2012, and a press conference in Amman, Jordan in April 2013. The press conference highlighted the impact of the Syrian civil war on women and children.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf.

Key Leaders

  • Ata Abu Rashta

    Global leader
  • Abdul Wahid

    Abdul Wahid

    Chairman of HT Britain
  • Ismail al-Wahwah

    Ismail al-Wahwah

    Leader of HT Australia
  • Taji Mustafa

    Spokesperson for HT Britain
  • Uthman Badar

    Spokesperson for HT Australia

History

 

Violent Activities

HT calls for unifying Muslim-majority countries under a single, global caliphate, while not advocating violence directly. However, members of HT have been involved in violent acts. Many younger members indoctrinated by HT, such as notorious ISIS figure “Jihadi John,” have gone on to join jihadist movements.

Designations

Designations by Foreign Governments and Organizations:

Bangladesh banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 2009.“Bangladesh outlaws Islamist militant group Ansarullah Bangla Team,” BDNews24.com, May 25, 2015, http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/05/25/bangladesh-outlaws-islamist-militant-group-ansarullah-bangla-team. China has banned Hizb ut-Tahrir.“Denmark Looks to Ban Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Local DK (Stockholm), February 26, 2015, http://www.thelocal.dk/20150226/denmark-looks-to-ban-islamic-group-hizb-ut-tahrir.
Egypt banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1974.“The Jihadists Who Have Recanted I,” Atlantic, November 16, 2009, http://www.theatlantic.com/daily-dish/archive/2009/11/the-jihadists-who-have-recanted-i/193995/. Germany banned Hizb ut-Tahrir on January 10, 2003.“Verbotene islamistische Organisationen,” Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, last modified March 25, 2015, http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/de/arbeitsfelder/af-islamismus-und-islamistischer-terrorismus/verbotene-organisationen-islamismus.
Jordan has banned Hizb ut-Tahrir.“Hizb ut-Tahrir,” American Foreign Policy Council, accessed June 2, 2015, http://almanac.afpc.org/sites/almanac.afpc.org/files/Hizb-ut%20Tahrir_0.pdf. Kazakhstan banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 2005.“Five Sentenced In Kazakhstan For Being Members Of Hizb Ut-Tahrir,” Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, July 1, 2014, http://www.rferl.org/content/hizb-ut-tahrir-kazakhstan-almaty-trial/25441193.html.
Kyrgyzstan has banned Hizb ut-Tahrir.“Alleged Members of Banned Islamist Groups Detained in Kyrgyzstan,” Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, February 4, 2015, http://www.rferl.org/content/alleged-members-of-banned-islamic-groups-detained-in-kyrgyzstan/26829621.html. Lebanon has banned Hizb ut-Tahrir.“American club refuses to host Hizb ut-Tahrir conference in U.S. after protests,” Al Arabiya, June 12, 2012, http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/06/12/220213.html.
Pakistan banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 2003.Jamie Doward and Gaby Hanslif, “PM shelves Islamic group ban,” Guardian (London), December 24, 2006, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/dec/24/religion.uk. Russia banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1999 (as a criminal organization) and 2003 (as a terrorist organization).Mohit Nayal, The Invisible Wall of China (New Delhi: Vij Books India, 2012), 11.
Saudi Arabia has banned Hizb ut-Tahrir.“Denmark Looks to Ban Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Local DK (Stockholm), February 26, 2015, http://www.thelocal.dk/20150226/denmark-looks-to-ban-islamic-group-hizb-ut-tahrir. Tajikistan banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 2001.“Tajik Hizb Ut-Tahrir Leader Sentenced To 18 Years,” Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, January 22, 2011, http://www.rferl.org/content/tajikistan_hizuttahrir_members_sentenced/2284242.html.
Turkey has banned Hizb ut-Tahrir.“Denmark Looks to Ban Hizb ut-Tahrir,” Local DK (Stockholm), February 26, 2015, http://www.thelocal.dk/20150226/denmark-looks-to-ban-islamic-group-hizb-ut-tahrir.

Associations

Ties to Extremist Entities:

After joining HT, some members have gone on to join explicitly violent Islamist groups. These groups include:

Al-Qaeda

Before joining al-Qaeda, both Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and former al-Qaeda in Iraq leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi were members of HT.“American club refuses to host Hizb ut-Tahrir conference in U.S. after protests,” Al Arabiya, June 12, 2012, http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/06/12/220213.html. HT members have also joined al-Qaeda in fighting the Assad regime in Syria’s ongoing civil war.Sara Malm, “100 members of controversial Islamic group linked to radicalised British students including Jihadi John have ‘joined forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html#ixzz3c1qJj1Ah.

ISIS

Some HT recruits have gone on to join ISIS. ISIS fighter Mohammed Emwazi, a.k.a. “Jihadi John,” reportedly attended HT events while in university in England.Sara Malm, “100 members of controversial Islamic group linked to radicalised British students including Jihadi John have ‘joined forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html#ixzz3c1qJj1Ah.

Nusra Front

HT members have joined, or tried to join, the Nusra Front. HT members have also joined Nusra Front rallies against the Syrian regime.Sara Malm, “100 members of controversial Islamic group linked to radicalised British students including Jihadi John have ‘joined forces with al Qaeda in Syria,’” Daily Mail (London), April 11, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3034733/100-members-controversial-Islamic-group-linked-radicalised-British-students-including-Jihadi-John-joined-forces-al-Qaeda-Syria.html#ixzz3c1qJj1Ah.

Al-Muhajiroun

Former HT leader Omar Bakri Muhammad founded al-Muhajiroun in 1996 with Anjem Choudary. Al-Muhajiroun is allegedly responsible for 50 percent of the terrorist attacks in the United Kingdom since 1995.Richard Spillet, “The extremist group behind most of the UK’s terror plots: Al-Muhajiroun network linked to half of attacks by Britons over past 20 years,” Daily Mail (London), March 23, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3007180/The-terror-group-UK-s-terror-plots.html.

Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT)

Some HT members in Bangladesh have joined Bangladesh-based Islamist group ABT, which is sometimes  referred to as “Ansar Bangla 8.”S. Binodkumar Singh, “Bangladesh: Freedom and Death Analysis,” Eurasia Review, May 18, 2015, http://www.eurasiareview.com/18052015-bangladesh-freedom-and-death-analysis/. One such member, Farabi Shafiur Rahman, was arrested in March 2015 for allegedly killing secular blogger Avijit Roy with a machete the preceding month. Rahman is under investigation for the deaths of other pro-secularist bloggers, including Ahmed Rashid Haider.Saad Hammadi and Mark Tran, “Bangladesh authorities arrest man over atheist blogger's murder,” Daily Mail (London), March 2, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/02/bangladesh-authorities-arrest-man-atheist-bloggers-murder-avijit-roy.

Ties to Extremist Individuals:

Omar Bakri Muhammad

Omar Bakri Muhammad led HT for approximately ten years before founding al-Muhajiroun, a more explicitly militant organization.Roots of Violent Radicalization, House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Nineteenth Report of Session 2010-12, Vol. 1 (London: the Stationary Office, February 6, 2012), 101, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmhaff/1446/1446.pdf. Al-Muhajiroun has been connected to more than 50 percent of terrorist plots in the United Kingdom, according to British terrorism expert Raffaello Pantucci. Numerous members of al-Muhajiroun have committed violent crimes in the United Kingdom or become foreign fighters in the Middle East.Richard Spillett, “The extremist group behind most of the UK's terror plots: Al-Muhajiroun network linked to half of attacks by Britons over past 20 years,” Daily Mail (London), March 23, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3007180/The-terror-group-UK-s-terror-plots.html#ixzz3c2H1HuX4.

Media Coverage

  • Western Media

    Western media outlets tend to mirror their respective government’s positions when debating a possible ban on HT. Both Reuters and the...

Rhetoric

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Ahmed Abu Hayyan, HT Britain, June 4, 2015

“[Tony] Blair et al have struggled for decades to articulate an argument to try and divide the world’s Muslims. From ‘Islamists’ versus ‘moderate.’… It is a great disappointment to Blair that Islam, rather than muscular liberalism is taught in Muslim schools and institutions in the Muslim world.”Ahmed Abu Hayyan, “Blair and his damning legacy,” HT Britain, June 4, 2015, http://www.hizb.org.uk/current-affairs/blair-and-his-damning-legacy.

Abdul Wahid, July 24, 2015

“Extremist is the secular word for heretic. It means that you don’t subscribe to certain political and social norms.”Peter Oborne, “Extremist is the secular word for heretic': the Hizb ut-Tahrir leader who insists on his right to speak,” Guardian (London), July 24, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jul/24/david-cameron-extremism-struggle-generation-abdul-wahid.

Abdul Wahid, Chair of HT Britain’s executive committee, May 27, 2015

“De-radicalization means making people less Islamic, more Western, more secular.”“Dr Abdul Wahid: Expose and Challenge CTS / Prevent Policy,” YouTube video, 6:00, posted by “Hizb ut Tahrir Britain,” uploaded May 27, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9AcHspQwr8&feature=youtu.be.

HT Britain article, May 13, 2015

“[The concept of extremism] is flawed because it rests on a false premise: the lie that the more Islamic a person is, the more of a potential threat they pose. ‘Deradicalisation’ has therefore come to mean making Muslims less Islamic and more ‘westernised’ or secular, using coercive means.”“Cameron’s latest counter-extremism policy attempts to challenge Islam,” Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain, May 13, 2015, http://www.hizb.org.uk/current-affairs/camerons-latest-counter-extremism-policy-attempts-to-challenge-islam.

HT Malaysia statement, May 2015

“If the people are suffering in Malaysia, it is because Umno is not applying the doctrines of Islam. If Umno leaders are rich while the people are poverty-stricken, it is because Umno is not applying the Islamic doctrine. If there is a high incidence of crime and immoral acts in Malaysia, it is because Umno is not applying the Islamic doctrine.”“Hizbut Tahrir: Umno has failed because it rejected Islam,” FMT News (Malaysia), May 5, 2015, http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2015/05/05/hizbut-tahrir-umno-has-failed-because-it-rejected-islam/.

Hassan al-Madhoun, spokesman for HT in the Gaza Strip, May 2015

“Destroying the Islamic caliphate led to the loss [under one flag] of Palestinian land and the rest of the Arabs. Only the Islamic caliphate will fill the political vacuum experienced by the Arab and Islamic nations. It will liberate Palestine and unify the Arab and Muslim nations in light of the sectarian rivalry witnessed in the Arab region. The state of the caliphate is a state with real state authority and underlying jurisprudential, intellectual and legal structures.”Hana Salah, “Hamas struggling with emerging Islamist parties,” Al-Monitor, May 28, 2015, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/05/hamas-gaza-support-salafist-groups-islamic-state.html#ixzz3c7SXvGaP.

Hassan al-Madhoun, spokesman for HT in the Gaza Strip, May 2015

“We call on the Muslim armies to direct their weapons toward Israel instead of Muslims in an Arab country.”Hana Salah, “Hamas struggling with emerging Islamist parties,” Al-Monitor, May 28, 2015, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/05/hamas-gaza-support-salafist-groups-islamic-state.html#ixzz3c7SXvGaP.

Hassan al-Madhoun, HT spokesman in the Gaza Strip, May 2015

“The West knows that the return of the caliphate is inevitable, therefore it supports regimes that suppress the nation’s movement, represented by the revolutions in Muslim countries, such as in Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Yemen and others. The nation is alive, and there are Western fears of a return to the rule of the Islamic regime as a result of the Arab revolutions. The caliphate ruled Muslims for 1,300 years. Calling for its return is a tenet and is an idea that does not fall outside the framework of Islamic societies.”Hana Salah, “Hamas struggling with emerging Islamist parties,” Al-Monitor, May 28, 2015, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/05/hamas-gaza-support-salafist-groups-islamic-state.html#ixzz3c7SXvGaP.

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